Volume 7, 2023

Table of contents

List of Reviewers

Radiation Physics


Anastasiia Chekhovska, David Chvátil, Tamara Krasta, Ivana Krausova, Vaclav Olšanský, Daina Riekstiņa

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2023.01

Received: 20 OCT 2023, Received revised: 13 DEC 2023, Accepted: 24 DEC 2023, Published online: 22 JAN 2024

The enriched 164Dy and natural dysprosium targets were activated with the bremsstrahlung beam at end- point energies 7.17, 8.11, 9,75, 12.12, 13.75, 16.6, 18.34, 20.36, and 22.82 MeV. The decay γ-spectra measured with HPGe detector up to 2.4 MeV energy were used to determine yields of the photoactivation reaction 164Dy(γ,p) 163Tb. The γ-spectra following the 164Dy photoactivation reaction with 20.36 MeV photons allowed to develop the level scheme of 163Dy including 37 levels up to 1.44 MeV excitation energy. A number of 163Dy levels and γ-lines were observed in the β- decay of 163Tb for the first time. The proposed level scheme of 163Dy was compared with the results of quasiparticle-plus- rotor interaction model calculations.
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Anastasiia Chekhovska, David Chvátil, Tamara Krasta, Ivana Krausova, Vaclav Olšanský, Daina Riekstiņa, "Photoactivation study of 163TB β-decay", RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 7, 2023, pp. 1-5; http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2023.01
Radiation Detectors


David Zoul, Pavel Zháňal, Patricie Halodová, Antonín Kolros, Ladislav Viererbl, David Dobrev, Petr Večerník

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2023.02

Received: 9 AUG 2023, Received revised: 11 DEC 2023, Accepted: 21 DEC 2023, Published online: 23 JAN 2024

In May 2021, the SPE-CT facility for computed gamma tomography at the Research Centre Rez underwent its third major upgrade. One of the stated objectives was to assess the possibility of using the SPE-CT equipment for the TA CR TREND ALMARA project, which is the subject of this article. In this project, small cores of irradiated metals were cast into the studied fixation matrices. After matrix hardening, the possibility to determine by a non-destructive method the exact position of these coupons in the matrix was tested with the help of the device. The formation of corrosion products at the contact point between the two materials and the subsequent migration of radioisotopes in the matrix were also studied.
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David Zoul, Pavel Zháňal, Patricie Halodová, Antonín Kolros, Ladislav Viererbl, David Dobrev, Petr Večerník, "Non-destructive testing of alternative materials for storing radioactive waste, using computed 3D gamma tomography", RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 7, 2023, pp. 6-12; http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2023.02
Radiation Measurements


Elio A.G. Tomarchio

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2023.03

Received: 29 OCT 2023, Received revised: 21 DEC 2023, Accepted: 29 DEC 2023, Published online: 25 JAN 2024

The spectrometric analysis of a sample measured in "close geometry" can be affected by errors due to coincidence-summing effects that occur when two or more cascade photons are emitted within the resolution time of the spectrometric system. The probability that these effects occur depends primarily on the nuclide decay scheme, the sample-detector distance, and the intrinsic efficiency of the detector. The values of correction factors are obtained by using well known expressions which terms depend on decay data, Full-Energy-Peak Efficiency (FEPE) and Total Efficiency (TE) values. The experimental determination of FEPE and TE calibration curves performed by using single-γ emitter sources for each measurement geometry is a long and tedious task. Equally time-consuming is the use of a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation both for the validation of the detector model and the number of analyses to be carried out. In this work some faster and simpler procedures to evaluate true coincidence-summing correction factors are tested and the results are compared with the ones obtained through experimental FEPE and TE calibration curves as well as a MC simulation. For point sources a TE behaviour approximation (linear or a constant), the use of Total-to-Peak ratios and a Virtual Point Detector (VPD) approach are considered. For volume sources, a VPD efficiency transfer method by integration of elementary efficiencies over the whole source volume is used. The different approaches give very close results and differences are of the order of a few per cent.
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Elio A.G. Tomarchio, Fast coincidence-summing correction procedures for gamma spectrometric measurements in close geometries, RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 7, 2023, pp. 13-19; http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2023.03


Milena Hristozova, Radoslava Lazarova, Ivanka Yordanova, Viktoria Nedyalkova

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2023.04

Received: 31 OCT 2023, Received revised: 8 JAN 2024, Accepted: 21 JAN 2024, Published online: 25 JAN 2024

Mosses are collectors of anthropogenic pollution and are suitable as bioindicators for the content of heavy metals and radionuclides in the air. Due to their lack of a real root system, the main way nutrients are supplied to them is through air moisture. Airborne substances are absorbed and retained in the moss, even when these plants are thousands of kilometers from the source of pollution. In regard to radionuclides, mosses are very indicative. The subject of the research are mosses from Livingstone Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The presence of natural and man-made radionuclides is investigated. The presence of Natural and man-made radionuclides were determined by means of gamma-spectrometry. The content of Pb-210, U-238, Ra-226, Pb-214, Bi-214, Th-232, K-40, Cs-137 was determined. The activity of cesium-137 is between 3.5±1.2 and 11±2 Bq/kg, for Pb-210 - between 68±7 и 163±15 Bq/kg. Results from samples taken in 2012 and 2022 are compared. This allows to assess the current state of the Antarctic ecosystem and to ascertain changes over a 10-year period. The research confirms that even the most distant points on the globe are contaminated with radionuclides.
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Milena Hristozova, Radoslava Lazarova, Ivanka Yordanova, Viktoria Nedyalkova, "Content of natural and man-made radionuclides in Antarctic mosses", RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 7, 2023, pp. 20-23; http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2023.04
Radiation Measurements


Aleš Jančář, Jiří Čulen, Jitka Tesařová, Filip Mravec, Zdeněk Matěj

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2023.05

Received: 8 SEPT 2023, Received revised: 31 JAN 2024, Accepted: 12 FEB 2024, Published online: 24 FEB 2024

The newly developed spectrometric system combines a digital multichannel analyzer and peak analysis. The fast digital (FD) card is built on programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and fast 12-bit analog-digital convertor (ADC) with a sampling frequency of (100 - 1000) MS/s. The FD card contains integrated high voltage module, preamplifier, digital interface for communication with a PC and advanced algorithms for peak analysis of the measured spectra. This system can be integrated directly into radiation detectors and perform spectrometric measurements and evaluations.
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Aleš Jančář , Jiří Čulen, Jitka Tesařová, Filip Mravec, Zdeněk Matěj, "Fast digitizer card with integrated peak analysis algorithm", RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 7, 2023, pp. 24-27; http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2023.05
Radiation Measurements


Gabriele Auriemma, Anna Bianchi, Anna Selva, Valeria Conte

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2023.06

Received: 20 OCT 2023, Received revised: 11 DEC 2023, Accepted: 18 DEC 2023, Published online: 24 FEB 2024

Low-dose radiation (LDR) has been demonstrated to have a significant impact on various immune response mechanisms, potentially eliciting both stimulatory and adaptive reactions within living organisms. The precise cellular mechanisms responsible for these radiation-induced immune responses warrant further in-depth investigation. Within this context, the presence of research facilities both underground and at ground level at the Gran Sasso Laboratories of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN-LNGS) presents an excellent opportunity for exploring the influence of low and extremely low doses of radiation in provoking immune responses. Conducting in vitro and in vivo studies on the effects of LDR introduces several uncertainties, including the radiation quality, which is often not closely monitored, and various uncontrolled physical variables. To address these challenges, microdosimetric techniques will be employed to continuously monitor the absorbed dose and linear energy transfer (LET) distribution of the environmental radiation field. This becomes particularly important at such low dose levels, where the process of radiation interaction is primarily governed by stochastic effects, even for low LET radiation. To facilitate this research, a large spherical tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) with a diameter of 5 cm has been designed at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of INFN. It is filled with propane gas to simulate a thickness of 1-2 µm of biological tissue. This study presents and discusses microdosimetric spectra measured using the aforementioned TEPC in various experimental scenarios.
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  9. S. Chiriotti, D. Moro, P. Colautti, V. Conte, B. Grosswendt, “Equivalence of pure propane and propane te gases for microdosimetric measurements.”, Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry., 166(1-4), 242-6, 2015.
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  12. A. Bianchi, A. Selva, P. Colautti, A. Parisi, F. Vanhavere, B. Reniers, V. Conte, “The effect of different lower detection thresholds in microdosimetric spectra and their mean values”, Radiat. Meas., 146,, 106626, 2021.
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Gabriele Auriemma, Anna Bianchi, Anna Selva, Valeria Conte, "Environmental microdosimetry in very low dose rate radiation fields", RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 7, 2023, pp. 28-33; http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2023.06
Radiation Effects


Michal Jelinek, Ales Jancar, Tadeas Zbozinek, Bretislav Mikel

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2023.07

Received: 31 OCT 2023, Received revised: 31 JAN 2024, Accepted: 12 FEB 2024, Published online: 9 MARCH 2024

Plastic optical fibres (POF) made of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) have several advantages over traditional optical fibres, including lower cost, the possibility of larger diameters and better mechanical resistance. These properties make them an attractive option for sensor technologies, including radiation dosimetry. This paper compares PMMA optical fibre with pure silica core optical fibre. Both fibres are useful for ionising radiation measurements. To evaluate the effect of ionising radiation, we have developed and designed a measurement system that allows continuous measurement of attenuation during the ionising radiation irradiation process. We used a technique that measured changes in laser power transmitted through an optical fibre at a constant gamma radiation dose rate.
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Michal Jelinek, Ales Jancar, Tadeas Zbozinek, Bretislav Mikel, "PMMA optical fibre irradiated with Co-60 for optical fibre sensors", RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 7, 2023, pp. 34-39; http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2023.07
Radiation Protection


Károly Bodor, Attila Gulyás, Péter Zagyvai, Péter Völgyesi

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2023.08

Received: 1 AUG 2023, Received revised: 18 DEC 2023, Accepted: 24 FEB 2024, Published online: 15 MARCH 2024

There is a growing need for research, detector testing and metrological methods to study pulsed radiation fields because many facilities (e.g. high-power laser facilities) and devices produce pulsed ionizing radiation. Although the ELI ALPS laser facility is already operational in Hungary, the operational parameters (frequency of the laser shots, daily operational time of the laser, energy of the laser pulse and the number of the generated particles in the laser-matter interaction) are low, thus the generated pulsed radiation is negligible. Over the following ten years, the operational parameters will be drastically enhanced. In pulsed radiation fields, since the dose rate changes rapidly as a function of time, detectors in commonly used radiation protection measuring devices are not always able to track and accurately measure the dose nor the dose rate above a certain level of exposure. The general goal was to improve our knowledge of and capability to investigate as well as test measuring devices in well-defined pulsed fields to be able to give advice to users and the regulating Authority. The available X- ray source for this type of testing has its limitations, thus the additional goal was to develop a special device that can generate a well-defined pulsed radiation field, which can be adjustable and further developed. Preliminary tests were conducted using an X-ray device and continued with a self-developed Gamma chopper. A STEP OD-02 meter was used as a reference detector and the measurement results compared to the theoretical values. The created pulsed field by the Gamma chopper was known, the dose rate per angle was determined by its mechanical structure, these were the theoretical values. Ionization chambers and TLDs were tested in different pulsed radiation fields. The capabilities and properties of the generated pulsed radiation field as well as the stability of the Gamma chopper were tested. The results were similar to those in the literature, i.e. measuring devices tend to underestimate the dose and dose rate in pulsed radiation fields. The measurements recorded by the STEP OD- 02 meter were in good agreement with the theoretical values. The tests highlighted that selection of the operation mode is crucial in order to accurately measure pulsed radiation fields with ionization chambers. Even though the Gamma chopper can be improved, its heeling effect (swaying, vibration of the rotating disk) was not identified. In the future, the capabilities of the Gamma chopper will be extended to increase its frequency and unshielded to shielded ratio, moreover, measurement procedures will be drawn up to test measuring devices in pulsed radiation fields when using it. Our test campaign was carried out with a precise series of measurements.
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Károly Bodor, Attila Gulyás, Péter Zagyvai, Péter Völgyesi, "Testing measuring devices in well-defined pulsed radiation fields", RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 7, 2023, pp. 40-46; http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2023.08


Šaćira Mandal

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2023.09

Received: 30 OCT 2023, Received revised: 11 MARCH 2024, Accepted: 21 MARCH 2024, Published online: 5 APRIL 2024

Although there is considerable evidence suggesting a strong association of glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fatty acid levels with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), a limited number of studies have examined the association of individual fatty acids with disease progression. Acutely elevated plasma fatty acids stimulate insulin secretion while chronically elevated plasma fatty acids alter and disrupt insulin secretion. Furthermore, free fatty acids (FFA) are known to interfere with normal glucose homeostasis and affect pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. The study included 24 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 27 healthy controls, and analysis of the level of glucose and glycated hemoglobin was done by routine methods. The concentration of individual FFA was determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The results showed statistically significant differences in glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile, palmitic, linolenic, arachidonic, arachidonic, behenic acid as well as in DHA levels in all participants. In healthy subjects, no significant correlation was found between glucose and individual free fatty acids but a negative correlation was observed between DHA and glycated hemoglobin (p<0.05). Newly diagnosed diabetics showed a negative significant association between glucose and lauric acid concentrations, and also the association of glycated hemoglobin with myristic acid levels (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). These data indicate the association of different types of free fatty acids with glucose levels and their control in the serum of healthy and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics, and therefore indicate the importance of monitoring glucose levels as well as glycated hemoglobin with concentrations of individual free fatty acids in the progression of diabetes.
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Šaćira Mandal, "Association of free fatty acid concentrations with glucose levels in Bosnian subjects", RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 7, 2023, pp. 47-51; http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2023.09
Neutron and Heavy Ion Radiations


G. Santagati, E. V. Pagano, C. Boiano, G. Cardella, A. Castoldi, E. De Filippo, E. Geraci, B. Gnoffo, C. Guazzoni, A. Lanzalone, C. Maiolino, N. S. Martorana, A. Pagano, S. Pirrone, G. Politi, F. Risitano, F. Rizzo, P. Russotto, M. Trimarchi, C. Zagami

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2023.10

Received: 20 OCT 2023, Received revised: 12 FEB 2024, Accepted: 21 FEB 2024, Published online: 16 APRIL 2024

Neutron and light-charged particle detections with high angular and energy resolution become mandatory for future experiments with radioactive beams that will be provided by new heavy ion facilities such as FRAISE at LNS, SPES at LNL, and FAIR at GSI. The aim of the ANCHISE project is to use a new-generation plastic scintillator, called EJ276-G, coupled with a SiPM photosensor as the elementary detection cell of a segmented multi-detector able to detect at the same time neutrons and light-charged particles. In this contribution new results, obtained through Monte Carlo simulations, will be described on detection efficiency and cross-talk probability estimation as a function of the incident neutron energy and the detection threshold. Two geometrical configurations of the elementary cells were investigated. The study supports the construction of NArCoS, a neutron correlator based on the EJ276-G scintillator as a basic element coupled with SiPM photosensors, for application in nuclear and applied physics.
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G. Santagati, E. V. Pagano, C. Boiano, G. Cardella, A. Castoldi, E. De Filippo, E. Geraci, B. Gnoffo, C. Guazzoni, A. Lanzalone, C. Maiolino, N.S. Martorana, A. Pagano, S. Pirrone, G. Politi, F. Risitan, F. Rizzo, P. Russotto, M. Trimarchi, C. Zagami, "Some results for the study of the efficiency and cross-talk probability by using GEANT4 simulations for the neutron correlator NArCoS", RAD Conf. Proc., vol. 7, 2023, pp. 52-58; http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2023.10
Medical Physics


M. Szymański, M. Bojarojć, A. Jabłońska, B. Kuśmierska-Piątek

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2023.11

Received: 31 OCT 2023, Received revised: 30 MARCH 2024, Accepted: 11 APRIL 2024, Published online: 25 APRIL 2024

The aim of this study is to emphasize the importance of proper dosimetric and mechanical preparation of the linear accelerator and to highlight the significance of this step in ensuring the efficacy and safety of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Performance verification of two Varian VitalBeam linear accelerators was executed in order to monitor the output consistency, MLC repeatability and radiation isocenter location and size. Dose output consistency measurements were conducted using phantoms and dosimetric equipment from PTW. The analysis of MLC positioning tests, isocenter size and location were performed by in-house scripts based on pylinac tools. These tests were conducted on a weekly basis. Evaluation of the results of tests performed over a 90-week period showed a positive trend in output consistency. However, no discernible trend or pattern was observed in the other tests. In conclusion, the authors suggest that performing dosimetric and mechanical checks on the linear accelerator before conducting SBRT treatment is an effective way to maintain a safe treatment environment.
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M. Szymański, M. Bojarojć, A. Jabłońska, B. Kuśmierska-Piątek, "Stereotactic body radiation therapy – dosimetry and mechanical preparation of linear accelerator", RAD Conf. Proc., vol. 7, 2023, pp. 59-62; http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2023.11
Radiation Measurements


Antonio De Donato, Pierluigi Carconi, Marco Capogni, Andrea Petrucci, Pierino De Felice

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2023.12

Received: 26 OCT 2023, Received revised: 20 DEC 2023, Accepted: 30 DEC 2023, Published online: 03 JULY 2024

The National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) (ENEA-INMRI) organized 7 national Inter- Laboratory Comparisons (ILC) on the measurement of the environmental radioactivity and of radionuclides of medical interest. In this paper, the ILC N°6, on surface contamination measurements, will be described. The objectives of this ILC were to test, at the national level, the participant capability of measuring the surface emission rate of two Wide Area Sources (WAS) of 241Am (alpha emitter) and of 90Sr (beta emitter). The reference values of the two surface emission rates were determined using the ENEA-INMRI Primary Standard, a windowless gas-flow proportional counter. The participants were asked to collect 10 readings of the emission for each of the two WAS. Each participant could use the most appropriate instrument and method, whose type, characteristics, and efficiency had to be communicated to ENEA-INMRI along with the values of the readings carried out under the same measurement conditions. From these data it was possible to check the consistency of the values of the surface emission rate determined by each participant, and their deviation from the reference values.
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Antonio De Donato, Pierluigi Carconi, Marco Capogni, Andrea Petrucci, Pierino De Felice, "Inter-laboratory comparison of surface emission rate measurements of wide area sources", RAD Conf. Proc., vol. 7, 2023, pp. 63-67; http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2023.12
Radon and Thoron


Luigi Rinaldi, Marco Capogni, Francesco Cardellini, Pierino De Felice

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2023.13

30 OCT 2023, Received revised: 8 JAN 2024, Accepted: 22 JAN 2024, Published online: 03 JULY 2024

This is the first Italian interlaboratory comparison (ILC) on active radon monitoring organized by the National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology of ENEA (ENEA-INMRI). The ILC was financed by the Ministry of Economic Development (MiSE). The objective is to investigate the quality of radon measurements carried out by operators in the sector and improve their performance. Participants were asked to determine radon exposure in air over a time interval in which the radon concentration was varied over a wide range from approximately 500 to 5500 Bq/m3. The results were analyzed using the relative percentage difference D (%) and the normalized error En. Over 65% of the results fall within the range of En < 1. Most of the deviations were detected when the instruments were not calibrated correctly.
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Luigi Rinaldi, Marco Capogni, Francesco Cardellini, Pierino De Felice, "First national comparison on radon active monitors at ENEA-INMRI", RAD Conf. Proc., vol. 7, 2023, pp. 68-72; http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2023.13