Volume 4, 2020

Table of contents

List of Reviewers



Andrey G. Kazakov, Bogdan L. Garashchenko, Julia S. Babenya, Milana K. Ivanova, Sergey E. Vinokurov, Boris F. Myasoedov

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2020.01

Currently, a wide range of nanomaterials, including carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), are being investigated as possible carriers of radionuclides for nuclear medicine as a part of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs). The present work considers the possibility of using nanodiamonds (ND) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their derivatives to act as a potential basis for RPs containing bismuth which have radioisotopes 212,213Bi for targeted alpha-therapy. To study this, the kinetics of Bi(III) sorption onto selected CNMs in aqueous media with different pH, as well as Bi(III) desorption from these samples by a solution of fetal bovine serum at 37 ˚C were investigated. The optimal conditions for the sorption of Bi(III) onto the studied CNMs were found; it was shown that oxidized ND was the most promising carrier for bismuth isotopes: sorption at pH 3 to 7 for this sample was close to quantitative, and desorption in 120 min does not exceed 5 %. The cytotoxicity of CNMs was investigated in the standard MTT test, it was shown that LC50 for all studied samples was > 200 μg/mL.
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A. G. Kazakov, B. L. Garashchenko, J. S. Babenya, M. K. Ivanova, S. E. Vinokurov, B. F. Myasoedov, "Nanodiamonds and carbon nanotubes as perspective carriers of bismuth isotopes for nuclear medicine," RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 4, 2020, pp. 1-6, http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2020.01


Julya Zuenkova, Lev Izurov

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2020.02

Accessibility is an important part of quality of medical care and depends on the technical resources, infrastructure of a site, clinical stuff and work management. Clinical guidelines for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) which define the quality of processes influence work load. Purpose of the study was to determine the clinical and organizational changes in the technology of kilovoltage therapy for NMSC within the dayhospital department after implementation of new clinical guidelines and fraction regimes in compare with previously used schemes; derive a mathematical model of the work for the kilovoltage therapy unit. Materials and methods. Data from the kilovoltage therapy unit of the Sverdlovsk Regional Oncology Dispensary (SROD) were undertaken. Timekeeping was used for calculation the average duration of radiotherapy sessions per patient. The results were evaluated using correlation analysis. To forecast the need for material and human resources, an economic method of mathematical modeling was used. Results. The analysis of the kilovoltage therapy unit of radiotherapy department of the SROD for 3 years showed an increase from 10.4 to 17.3 in the average number of therapeutic fractions per patient after the implementation of the updated clinical guidelines. An increase in the average number of radiotherapy sessions leads to a doubling of the average bed-day of the patient's stay in the day-hospital. The formula was proposed for predicting the work of the unit. There is a clear correlation between the duration of treatment, the dynamics of hospitalization and the number of treated patients. The obtained results using a mathematical model fully correspond to the actual performance of the radiotherapy unit. Conclusion. To ensure optimal availability of medical care, it is necessary to match treatment technologies with available resources of the organization. The introduction of new treatment programs may require the expansion of staff, increase the quantity of medical equipment. The obtained mathematical model of the kilovoltage therapy unit allows to predict the optimal mode of work while maintaining the quality and accessibility of medical care.

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Julya Zuenkova, Lev Izurov, "Forecasting the kilovoltage therapy unit with the mathematical model," RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 4, 2020, pp. 7–10, http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2020.02


S.E. Vinokurov, S.A. Kulikova

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2020.03

This article summarizes the results of our research on the possibility of using a magnesium potassium phosphate (MPP) matrix to solve the problem of immobilization of radioactive waste (RW) generated during reprocessing of mixed uranium plutonium nitride spent nuclear fuel. We used CaCO 3 as a surrogate of waste containing 14C, as well as an aqueous solution of 41.6% LiCl-52.9% KCl-5.5% CsCl as a surrogate of the spent electrolyte formed during the pyrochemical fuel reprocessing. The mechanical, radiation and hydrolytic stability of the obtained compounds were investigated. It was found that the compounds have a high compressive strength of 17–26 MPa. The minimum carryover of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during the synthesis and keeping of the samples for 14 days was noted - no more than 3 wt%. It was found that the change of the matrix phase occurs during the irradiation by accelerated electrons during the accumulation of the absorbed dose of 108 Gy. In this case, the leaching rate of components of the compound including irradiated one corresponds to the current regulatory requirements for materials for RW immobilization. The differential leaching rate of Cs at 25 °C from monolithic samples containing LiCl-KCl-CsCl on the 91st day of samples contact with water was (5–11) × 10-5 g/(cm2 ·day) (according to GOST R 52126-2003 test), and was (4–29) × 10 −7 g/(cm2∙day) on the 7th day at 90 °C from crushed samples (in accordance with PCT standard). The thermal stability of the compound containing LiCl-KCl-CsCl up to 450 °C was shown.
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S.E. Vinokurov, S.A. Kulikova, "Magnesium potassium phosphate matrix for the immobilization of radioactive waste generated during the reprocessing of mixed uranium plutonium nitride spent nuclear fuel," RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 4, 2020, pp. 11–17, http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2020.03
Radiation Protection


Natasha Ivanova, Javor Ivanov, Bistra Manusheva, Ismet Tahsinov, Hrisimir Todorov, Nikolai Aleksandrov

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2020.04

. In this article we present the first results of a study of the dose load received by a medical team working with an angiographic X-ray system in the Department of Invasive Cardiology. In the first stage, we made measurements of the equivalent dose received by an interventional cardiologist for the most commonly used projections of the С-arm, because we do not take into account the impact of the relevant tissue in the body that is irradiated. The measurements were made at three points of the cardiologist’s body: head, gonads and feet. The purpose of this first step is to determine at which position of the patient table the operating cardiologist receives the lowest dose load for the most commonly used С-arm projections. From the obtained results it is reasonable to conclude that the factory set zero position of the patient table gives the lowest dose load for most of the projections used.
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Natasha Ivanova, Javor Ivanov, Bistra Manusheva, Ismet Tahsinov, Hrisimir Todorov, Nikolai Aleksandrov, "Dose load to the interventional cardiologist for different positions of the patient table - first results," RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 4, 2020, pp. 18–22, http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2020.04


T. A. Belyakova, V. E. Balakin, O. M. Rozanova, E. N. Smirnova, N. S. Strelnikova, A. E. Shemyakov, S. S. Sorokina, S. I. Zaichkina

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2020.05

The purpose of the work was to study the growth of solid Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and the remote effects (duration of remission, relapse rate, and average lifespan) in tumor-bearing mice exposed to oligofractionated irradiation with the pencil beam scanning of protons (PBSP) at a total dose of 60 Gy depending on the volume of the tissue being irradiated. Experiments were carried out on eight-to nine-week-old SHK male mice. Mice were irradiated with two fractions, 30 Gy each. In order to determine the volume of irradiated tissue, a tomogram of a mouse in a water phantom was obtained, and a gross tumor volume (GTV) that is equal to the average size of 470 mm 3 from all mice was specified using a specially developed 3D planning system. In another group of animals, the irradiated tissue region was increased to the planning target volume (PTV), which was equal to 1500 mm 3 . An analysis of EAC growth dynamics during the first month showed higher irradiation efficiency in mice with a smaller irradiated volume (the GTV group) compared with the PTV group. In the group with GTV irradiation, survival was higher: the maximum life expectancy in mice without relapse was 5 months longer, and in mice with relapse it was 3 months longer than in the PTV group. The average lifespan (AL) of mice with EAC relapses in the group with GTV irradiation was higher compared to the group with PTV irradiation (96 and 77 days after irradiation or 58 and 31 days after the occurrence of a relapse, respectively; p ≤ 0.01). The AL of mice without tumors was also notably longer in the GTV group: 283 days compared to 228 days after PTV irradiation (p ≤ 0.01).
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T. A. Belyakova, V. E. Balakin, O. M. Rozanova, E. N. Smirnova, N. S. Strelnikova, A. E. Shemyakov, S. S. Sorokina, S. I. Zaichkina, "The impact of target volumes of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma irradiated with a pencil scanning beam of protons at a total dose of 60 Gy on the tumor growth and remote effects in mice," RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 4, 2020, pp. 23–27, http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2020.05
Medicinal Chemistry


Donika Ivanova, Zvezdelina Yaneva

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2020.06

Cancer diseases are a problem with worldwide importance. However, the the lack of selectivity and induction of toxic side effect during conventional cancer therapy continue to provoke the search of innovative treatment approaches. Recent scientific results have reported for synergistic effect between combination of natural products and chemotherapeutic drugs. In this aspect, flavonoids, which are widely distributed in nature, are well known to exhibit numerous biological activities, including antioxidant, antibacterial, anti inflammatory, anti viral and anti cancer effects and may also, play a role in cancer prevention. In the present study, the effects of low concentrations of catechin hydrate and epigallocatechin, Acacia Catechu spay-dried extract, on cell viability of leukemia lymphocytes were investigated and compared, in order to provide an experimental basis for their future incorporation into newly-synthesized biopolymer particles.
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Donika Ivanova, Zvezdelina Yaneva, "Comparative analysis of the anti-proliferative effect of natural products catechin hydrate and epigallocatechin (extract) applied on leukemia lymphocytes," RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 4, 2020, pp. 28–31, http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2020.06
Health and Environment


Snežana Živković, Milan Veljković

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2020.07

All life on our planet is surrounded by radiation. Human life takes place with a certain level of radiation. The term psychologically is used primarily to explain the emotional reactions of the public, on issues in relation to which one should have a rational relationship because every story about radiation causes fear and rejection in an “unprofessional” and “conscientious” citizen. Over the past seventy years, a general opinion has been created through the mass media about the deadly effects of radiation. Apart from the real fear, which arises from the feeling of ecological endangerment, and which is based on the objective dangers of modern technologies, irrational fear is inevitably born. It is a generalization of all human subjective sufferings within the framework of “overestimated” reality. The feeling of fear that we are exposed to radiation can have far greater consequences than the actual harmful effects of physical radiation. The aim of this paper is to identify the psychological effects that radiation can cause in humans and how to overcome fear and stressful situations caused by radiation and the effect of psychosocial factors on human behavior, but also elements for prognosis and prediction for their behavior in similar situations. There is a justified concern when the risk of radiation appears, but the reality is far from the amount of panic that is spreading in the public and the media when it comes to these phenomena. We can conclude that people are generally afraid of radiation because their beliefs are dominated by misconceptions, delusions, or opinions that are the product of errors of judgment or are based on false premises.
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Snežana Živković, Milan Veljković, "Psychological aspects of ionizing radiation exposure," RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 4, 2020, pp. 32–38, http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2020.07
Radiation Effects


Tsveta Angelova, Nikolai Tyutyundzhiev, Christo Angelov, Svetla Gateva, Gabriele Jovtchev

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2020.08

The aim of this study is to assess the potential of prolonged UV irradiation to induce genotoxic alteration in Poaceae species cultivated in laboratory and in mountain conditions. Changes in natural environment increase to a great extent with altitude. In natural ecosystems plants are exposed to UV and other environmental factors for more than one period of time of 10, 20, 30 or 43 days. Four wild species: Poa alpina L., Sesleria coerulans Friv., Festuca valida (R. Uechtr.) Pénzes, Dactylis glomerata L., characteristic of the ecosystems in Rila Mountain at three different altitudes (1500m, 1782m, and 2925m) were collected in three successive growing seasons (2017, 2018, 2019). Five-days old model plant Hordeum vulgare L. was cultivated and exposed to UV irradiation in laboratory conditions for periods of 10, 20, 30 and 43 days. Induction of micronuclei was applied as endpoint. We propose that: i) prolonged irradiation as well as its increase with altitude could induce higher genotoxic injuries in plants; ii) wild plants in mountainous and alpine biotopes are well adapted to the environmental conditions where a combination of abiotic stress factors can occur. Our results show variability in the response to UV irradiation between plant species cultivated in laboratory conditions and wild plants in natural environment where UV is combined with other abiotic stress factors. Micronuclei induced in H. vulgare in laboratory conditions were with higher frequency than those in plants growing in mountain conditions. It could be due to the fact that in laboratory conditions we studied the effect of a single factor and for a limited period of time, while in the natural environment the effect of prolonged UV irradiation is combined with other abiotic stress factors. Plant species at the highest altitude of 2925 m had a well pronounced low level of damage, despite expected high level of damage. It is well known that plants’ response is modified when the effect of UV irradiation is combined with other factors. Further studies are needed for better understanding the mechanisms of interaction between factors and plant responses to the changing environmental conditions. Based on this and on future monitoring studies it could be possible to select sensitive monitor/model Poaceae species for the following comparative environmental impact assessments in laboratory and in mountain conditions.
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Tsveta Angelova, Nikolai Tyutyundzhiev, Christo Angelov, Svetla Gateva, Gabriele Jovtchev, "Induction of micronuclei after prolonged UV irradiation of Poaceae species cultivated in laboratory conditions and wild-growing in Rila mountain," RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 4, 2020, pp. 39–44, http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2020.08
Cancer Research


Marina Yu. Kopaeva, Irina B. Alchinova, Mikhail V. Nesterenko, Anton B. Cherepov, Marina S. Demorzhi, Irina Yu. Zarayskaya, Mikhail Yu. Karganov

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2020.09

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of human lactoferrin (hLf) in mice exposed to acute sublethal gamma-irradiation. C57Вl/6 male mice were used for the experiments. Animals from experimental groups were exposed to whole-body gamma-radiation at a dose of 7.5 Gy. Some animals received an intraperitoneal injection of lactoferrin (Lf) immediately and then at 24 hours after the irradiation. The effect of Lf on survival rate and life span was studied. Changes in the physiological parameters were evaluated by laser correlation spectroscopy of blood serum, histological examination of the liver, and blood leukocyte shift index count on day 30 after irradiation. The Lf administration increased the survival rate and life span of irradiated mice during the experiment. In addition, Lf had a compensatory effect on the white blood formula, serum composition and liver condition of irradiated animals.
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Marina Yu. Kopaeva, Irina B. Alchinova, Mikhail V. Nesterenko, Anton B. Cherepov, Marina S. Demorzhi, Irina Yu. Zarayskaya, Mikhail Yu. Karganov, "Radioprotective effect of human lactoferrin against gamma-irradiation with sublethal dose," RAD Conf. Proc http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2020.09
Cancer Research


Mitko Mitev, Evelin Obretenov

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2020.10

Introduction . The study aim to present the diagnostic capabilities of virtual bronchoscopy (VB) and fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) for determining the localization and shape of stenoses in patients with peripheral lung carcinoma. Materials and methods. A systemic study was performed on 90 patients, 61 patients of them (67.78%) are men and 29 (32.23%) are women, 44-85 years of age, with endobronchial disease, using the FB and VB methods, over the period 2013-2020. Results. As a result of the study of 220 patients aged 11-83 years (54.36 ± 17.24), in 90 patients after VB (40.91%; 61 men - 67.78% and 29 women - 32.23%) and in 86 patients after FB (39.09%; 61 men - 70.93% and 25 women - 29.07%) peripheral lung carcinoma was found. Cases of men diagnosed with VB and FB with peripheral left carcinoma predominate (65.38% and 71.43%, respectively) compared to those in women (34.62% and 28.57%, respectively) and as well as with regard to cases with peripheral right carcinoma. Significant differences in the size of the stenoses were found in both sexes with peripheral carcinoma (U = 4.112, P = 0.0000). Conclusion. VB allows high-quality visualization of stenoses and poststenotic areas that cannot be achieved with FB in peripherally located processes. Through VB peripheral branches of 5-6 order can be reached. VB makes it possible to examine the areas located after the tumour formation.
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Mitko Mitev, Evelin Obretenov, "Localization and shape of stenoses in peripheral lung carcinoma diagnosed by methods of VB and FB," RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 4, 2020, pp. 50–54, http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2020.10
Radiation Protection


Natasha Ivanova, Javor Ivanov, Bistra Manusheva, Ismet Tahsinov, Hrisimir Todorov, Nikolai Aleksandrov

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2020.11

In this article, we present some first results of the study of the dose load on a medical team working with an angiographic X-ray system in the Department of Invasive Cardiology. In the first stage, we made measurements of the dose received by an interventional cardiologist for the most commonly used projections of the C-arm. The measurements were made at three different points of the body of the cardiologist: head, gonads and feet. The aim of this article is to determine, based on the measurements, how the dose load is distributed at different points of the body of the cardiologist when various projections of the C-arm of the angiographic system and at different positions of the patient’s table are used. The obtained results indicate the point “Gonads” to receive the highest dose load and “Head” as the point with the lowest dose load.
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  6. M. Osanai, K. Kudo, M. Hosoda, H. Tazoe, N. Akata, M. Kitajima, M. Tsushima, N. Komiya, M. Kudo, T. Tsujiguchi, M. Takagi, Y. Hosokawa, Y. Saito, “The impact on the eye lens of radiation emitted by natural radionuclides (lead-210) present in radiation protection glasses,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry, vol. 188, no. 1, pp. 13- 21, Jan. 2020.
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Natasha Ivanova, Javor Ivanov, Bistra Manusheva, Ismet Tahsinov, Hrisimir Todorov, Nikolai Aleksandrov, "Dose load to different parts of the body of the interventional cardiologist - first results," RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 4, 2020, pp. 55–59, http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2020.11


Dmitry Lebedev, Luiza Garaeva, Vladimir Burdakov, Andrey Volnitskiy, Natalya Razgildina, Alina Garina, Dmitry Amerkanov, Fedor Pack, Konstantin Shabalin, Evgeniy Ivanov, Victor Ezhov, Andrey Konevega, Tatiana Shtam

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2020.12

Proton therapy is used today to treat many cancers and is particularly appropriate in situations where surgery options are limited, and conventional radiotherapy presents unacceptable risks to patients. A few years ago, it was suggested that an increase of up to a factor of two of the doses at the proton Bragg peak could be achieved if boron is accumulated in the tumor tissues. The mechanism responsible for a higher dose was suggested to be related to proton-boron fusion reactions, leading to the production of high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) α-particles. Nowadays there are single works showing the effectiveness of proton beam irradiation boron-11-containing cancer cells. A limited number of the studies devoted to the application of 11B(p,3a) nuclear reaction in proton therapy and lack of consistency in their results do not allow to judge about the prospects of the boron-containing drugs utilization in proton therapy to increase its antitumor efficacy. In this work, we experimentally test the possibility to enhance proton biological effectiveness in boron-11-containing cancer cells in vitro. Human glioblastoma cells were pre-incubated with boron compound (Na2B 4O7, sodium tetraborate) and irradiated with increasing doses 2-8 Gy at the proton Bragg peak. To test whether the physical nuclear reaction 11B(p,3a) results in an enhancement of the cancer cell death by high-energy proton beam irradiation, cell lines were also irradiated with graded doses 2-8 Gy using
γ-ray source. The ability of boron compound to activate the cancer cell death with protons at the Bragg peak irradiation was shown in vitro. At the same time, weaker similar effect was determined for gamma-irradiation that may indicate not only the physical nature of influence boron at irradiated cancer cell viability but a specific biological effect. The data suggest that the combined effect of proton therapy with 11B on glioma cells increases their sensitivity to proton irradiation with low toxicity of the boron compound for cells of normal morphology.
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Dmitry Lebedev, Luiza Garaeva, Vladimir Burdakov, Andrey Volnitskiy, Natalya Razgildina, Alina Garina, Dmitry Amerkanov, Fedor Pack, Konstantin Shabalin, Evgeniy Ivanov, Victor Ezhov, Andrey Konevega, Tatiana Shtam,"Radiosensitizing effect of boron enhances the effectiveness of proton therapy in vitro," RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 4, 2020, pp. 60–65, http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2020.12