Volume 4, 2020



L.V. Tereshchenko, I.D. Shamsiev, I.V. Bondar, E.A. Krasavin, A.V. Latanov

Pages: 121-125

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2020.26

During long-duration space flights outside the Earth’s magnetosphere, exposure to galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles may lead to early damage to human central nervous system, causing operator activity impairments in astronauts. A conditioned instrumental performance involving saccadic eye movements and manual reactions was studied in two nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta). One monkey was exposed to a single cranial proton irradiation (170 MeV, 3 Gy). For the other control animal irradiation was simulated. Proton irradiation had no negative effects on instrumental performance during three months after irradiation. However, irradiated monkey showed an increase in saccadic and manual response latencies started at the one month after irradiation and observed next two months. No such effects were found in control monkey. Thus system processes, crucial for conditioned instrumental behaviour, turned out to be widely resistant to proton irradiation, although increase in saccadic and manual response latencies suggests its early negative effects on integrative and executive brain mechanisms.
  1. J. C. Chancellor, R. S. Blue, K. A. Cengel et al., “Limitations in predicting the space radiation health risk for exploration astronauts”, NPJ Microgravity, vol. 4, a. no. 8, 2018.
    DOI: 10.1038/s41526-018-0043-2
  2. G. A. Nelson, “Space Radiation and Human Exposures, A Primer”, Radiat Res., vol. 185, no. 4, pp. 349-358, 2016.
    DOI: 10.1667/RR14311.1
  3. V. K. Parihar, B. D. Allen, C. Caressi et al., “Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction”, Sci. Rep., vol. 6, a. no. 34774, 2016.
    DOI: 10.1038/srep34774
  4. F. Kiffer, V. Boerma, A. Allen, “Behavioral effects of space radiation: A comprehensive review of animal studies”, Life Sci. Space Res., vol. 21, pp. 1-21, 2019.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2019.02.004
  5. A. Bruner, V. Bogo, R. K. Jones, “Delayed match-to-sample early performance decrement in monkeys after 60-Co irradiation”, Radiat. Res., vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 83-96, 1975.
    PMid: 1144685
  6. V. Bogo, “Radiation: behavioral implications in space”, Toxicology ., vol. 49, pp. 299–307, 1988.
    DOI: 10.1016/0300-483X(88)90012-1
  7. M. E. Robbins, J. D. Bourland, J. M. Cline et al., “A model for assessing cognitive impairment after fractionated whole-brain irradiation in nonhuman primates”, Radiat Res., vol. 175, no. 4, pp. 519–525, 2011.
    DOI: 10.1667/RR2497.1
  8. E. E. Kovalev, “Radiation protection during space flight”, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 16-23, 1983.
    PMid: 6318715
  9. N. V. Kuznetsov, R. A. Nymmik, M. I. Panasyuk, “The balance between SEP and GCR particle fluxes in interplanetary space, depending on solar activity level”, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 552, pp. 1197-1202, 2001.
    DOI: 10.1063/1.1358072
  10. P. König, N. Wilming, T. C. Kietzmann et al., “Eye movements as a window to cognitive processes”, Journal of Eye Movement Research, vol. 9, no. 5, a. no. 3, 2016.
    DOI: 10.16910/jemr.9.5.3
  11. И. В. Бондарь, Л. Н. Васильева, Л. В. Терещенко и др., “Обучение макак-резусов сложным когнитивным задачам”, Журн. высш. нервн. деят. им. И.П. Павлова, т. 68, no. 4, стр. 459-476, 2018. (I. V. Bondar, L. N. Vasileva, L. V. Tereshchenko et al., “Rhesus monkey training in complex cognitive tasks”, I.P. Pavlov Journal of Higher Nervous Activity, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 459-476, 2018.)
    DOI: 10.1134/S0044467718040044
  12. A. V. Latanov, V. N. Anisimov, “Method and system for recording eye movement”, Patent No. RU 2696042C2, 2019.
  13. А. Г. Беляева, А. С. Штемберг, А. М. Носовский и др., “Воздействие высокоэнергетических протонов и ионов углерода 12С на когнитивные функции обезьян и содержание моноаминов и их метаболитов в периферической крови”, Нейрохимия, т. 34, no. 2, стр. 168–176, 2017. (G. Belyaeva, A. S. Shtemberg, A. M. Nosovskii et al., “The effects of high-energy protons and carbon ions (12C) on the cognitive function and the content of monoamines and their metabolites in peripheral blood in monkeys”, Neurochemical Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 168-175, 2017).
    DOI: 10.7868/S1027813317010034
  14. B. M. Rabin, L. L. Buhler, J. A. Joseph et al., “Effects of exposure to 56Fe particles or protons on fixed-ratio operant responding in rats”, J. Radiat. Res., vol. 43, Issue Suppl., S225-S228, 2002.
    DOI: 10.1269/jrr.43.S225
  15. B. Shukitt-Hale, A. Szprengiel, J. Pluhar et al., “Effects of proton exposure on neurochemistry and behavior”, Adv. Space Res., vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1334–1339, 2004.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2003.10.038
  16. C. M. Davis, K. L. DeCicco-Skinner, R. D. Hienz, “Deficits in Sustained Attention and Changes in Dopaminergic Protein Levels following Exposure to Proton Radiation Are Related to Basal Dopaminergic Function”, PLoS ONE., vol. 10, no. 12, a. no. e0144556, 2015.
    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144556
  17. A. V. Latanov, L. V. Tereschenko, M. A. Ostrovsky, “Influence of Cranial Irradiation with High-Energy Protons on the Visuomotor Behavior in Monkeys”, Dokl. Biol. Sci., vol. 487, pp. 95–97, 2019.
    DOI: 10.1134/S0012496619040069
  18. L. V. Tereshchenko, V. N. Anisimov, V. V. Shul’govsky et al., “Early changes of saccade parameters in monkeys at the developments of MPTP-induced hemiparkinsonism”, Perception., vol. 44, no. 8-9, pp. 1054-1063, 2015.
    DOI: 10.1177/0301006615596868
  19. Л. В. Терещенко, А. В. Латанов, “Нарушения зрительно-моторных функций при развитии МФТП-индуцированного паркисоноподобного синдрома у обезьян”, Журн. высш. нервн. деят. им. И.П. Павлова, т. 68, no. 4, стр. 496-513, 2018. (L. V. Tereshchenko, A. V. Latanov, “Visuo Motor Impairments at the Development of MPTP-Induced Hemiparkinsonian Syndrome in Monkeys”, I.P. Pavlov Journal of Higher Nervous Activity, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 496-513, 2018.)
    DOI: 10.1134/S0044467718040147
L.V. Tereshchenko, I.D. Shamsiev, I.V. Bondar, E.A. Krasavin, A.V. Latanov, "Disturbances in visuomotor behaviour of nonhuman primates after cranial irradiation with high-energy protons," RAD Conf. Proc, vol. 4, 2020, pp. 121–125, http://doi.org/10.21175/RadProc.2020.26