Vol. 2, 2017

Original research papers

Radiation Protection

DETERMINATION THE EFFECT OF ESTABLISHMENT OF 4G SYSTEMS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION LEVELS IN A PILOT DISTRICT

Çetin Kurnaz, Doğan Yıldız, Serap Karagöl

Pages: 90-94

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.19

The level of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) exposure increases day by day as natural consequences of technological developments. In recent years, the increasing use of cellular systems due to technological developments in wireless communication systems has made it necessary to measure and evaluate RF-EMF originating from base stations which are the basic structure of these systems. In Turkey, as in April 2016, fourth generation of wireless mobile communication technology (4G) has been introduced and additional base stations are continuing to be added to the system. In this study, RF-EMF measurements were taken at four different times in order to examine and evaluate the change of RF-EMF before and after 4G in Atakum district which is one of the most crowded districts of Samsun, Turkey. Two of the measurements were taken before 4G and the remaining measurements were taken after 4G. Each measurement was taken at different times of the day (morning, noon and evening). The measurements were collected from 46 different location using PMM 8053 EMF meter which measures RF-EMF in the broad band from 100 kHz to 3 GHz. In the measurements, the maximum electric field strength (Emax) and the average electric field strength (Eavg) were recorded. The highest values have been noticed in these measurement 9,44 V/m and 17,53 V/m for Eavg and Emax respectively. According to the measurement results, a decrease of 45,95% was observed in the measurement values of the morning hours compared to the measurement values of the evening and noon hours. The average RF-EMF value after 4G introduced has increased by 30,95% compared to before 4G. Apart from these measurements, 24 hour measurements were taken at a location where the highest value was observed and was analyzed to observe the change of RF-EMFs during a day.
  1. Ç. Kurnaz, “An Empirical Modelling of Electromagnetic Pollution on an University Campus,” The Applied Computational Electromagnetic Society Express Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp.76-79, Feb. 2016.
    Retrieved from: http://www.aces-society.org/includes/downloadpaper.php?of=ACES_Express_Journal_February_2016_Paper_10&nf=ej-16-2-10
    Retrieved on: Jan. 9, 2017
  2. B. K. Engiz, Ç. Kurnaz, “Long-Term Electromagnetic Field Measurement and Assessment for a Shopping Mall,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Nov. 2016.
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncw343
  3. B. K. Gül, Ç. Kurnaz, B. K. Engiz, “Measurement and Evaluation of Electromagnetic Pollution in Ondokuz Mayıs University Kurupelit Campus in Samsun, Turkey,” in Proc. Third International Conference on Advances in Information Processing and Communication Technology, Rome, Italy, 2015, pp.80-84.
    Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305387736_Measurement_and_Evaluation_of_Electromagnetic_Pollution_in_Ondokuz_Mayis_University_Kurupelit_Campus_in_Samsun_Turkey
    Retrieved on: Jan. 27, 2017
  4. A. Mousa, “Electromagnetic radiation measurements and safety issues of some cellular base stations in Nablus,” Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 35-42, Feb. 2011.
    Retrieved from: http://www.jestr.org/downloads/volume4/fulltext072011.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 27, 2017
  5. O. Genç, M. Bayrak, E. Yaldız, “Analysis of the effects of GSM bands to the electromagnetic pollution in the RF spectrum,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. PIER, vol. 101, pp. 17-32, 2010.
    DOI: 10.2528/PIER09111004
  6. S. Miclaus, P. Bechet, “Estimated and Measured values of the Radiofrequency Radiation Power Density around Cellular Base Stations,” Rom. Journ. Phys., vol. 52, no. 3–4, pp. 429–440, 2007.
    Retrieved from: http://www.nipne.ro/rjp/2007_52_3-4/0429_0441.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 7, 2017
  7. L. Seyfi, “Measurement of electromagnetic radiation with respect to the hours and days of a week at 100kHz–3GHz frequency band in a Turkish dwelling,” Measurement, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 3002-3009, Nov. 2013.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2013.06.021
  8. P. Baltrenas, R. Buckus, “Measurements and analysis of the electromagnetic fields of mobile communication antennas,” Measurement, vol. 46, no. 10, pp.3942-3949, Dec. 2013.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2013.08.008
  9. M. Koprivica, V. Slavkovic, N. Neskovic, A. Neskovic, “Statistical Analysis of Electromagnetic Radiation Measurements in the Vicinity of GSM/UMTS Base Station Installed on Buildings in Serbia,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, vol. 168, no. 4, pp. 489-502, Mar. 2016.
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncv372
    PMid: 26231558
  10. T. Karadag, M. Yüceer, T. Abbasov, “A Large-Scale Measurement, Analysis And Modelling of Electromagnetic Radiation Levels in the Vicinity of GSM/UMTS Base Stations in an Urban Area,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 1-14, Jan. 2016.
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncv008
    PMid: 25693600
  11. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300GHz),” Health Physics, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 494-522, 1998.
    Retrieved from: http://www.icnirp.org/cms/upload/publications/ICNIRPemfgdl.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 25, 2017
  12. Information and Communication Technologies Authority of Turkey. (Oct. 9, 2015). Law no. 29497 Ordinance change on By-Law on Determination, Control and Inspection of the Limit Values of Electromagnetic Field Force from The Electronic Communication Devices According to International Standards.
  13. PMM 8053B Field Probes Catalog, Narda Safety Test Solutions, Savona, Italy.
    Retrieved from: www.pmm.eu/includes/sendfile.asp?nomep=Field_Probes
    Retrieved on: Feb. 14, 2017