Vol. 2, 2017

Original research papers

Radiation Protection

MONITORING OF LONG TERM RF RADIATION DUE TO CELLULAR BASE STATIONS

Çetin Kurnaz, Begüm Korunur Engiz, Ahmet Turgut

Pages: 85-89

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.18

In parallel with technological developments, cellular systems and therefore base stations have begun to take up more space in our daily lives. Since each base station behaves like a radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) source, this increase in base stations leads to an increase in the value of RF-EMF. Therefore, it is very important to measure and evaluate the RF-EMF emitted from the base stations regarding its influence on human health. In this study, RF-EMF measurements were taken in ten different locations (schools, hospitals, homes, shopping malls, etc.) during 24 hours to investigate the time/location dependent changes in RF-EMF. For the measurement, the PMM8053 EMF meter measuring the total RF-EMF in the frequency range of 100 kHz-3 GHz was used, the highest electric field strengths (Emax) in the environment and the average electric field strengths (Eavg) were recorded. The measurement results show that the electric field strengths (E) originating from the base stations change significantly depending on the measurement location and time (usage intensity). The changes in E measured during the daytime in the home environment are softer, while for workplaces they are sharper due to opening/closing time. It is seen from the measurements that the highest Emax is 7.88V/m and the highest Eavg is 2.95V/m. In order to analyze the 24-hour measurements more precisely, four specific time intervals such as morning (6am-12am), afternoon (12am-6pm), evening (6pm-12pm) and night (12pm-6am) were selected. The mean E value for morning is 1.55V/m, while they are 1.94V/m, 1.48V/m and 1.16V/m for afternoon, evening and night respectively. E level at night increases by 67.2% compared to in the afternoon. At the end of the study, daily variations of E values were examined and empirical models were proposed using curve fitting methods. With the use of these models, the E in the environment can be predicted with an accuracy of up to 95%.
  1. Ç. Kurnaz, “An Empirical Modelling of Electromagnetic Pollution on an University Campus,” The Applied Computational Electromagnetic Society Express Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 76 – 79, Feb. 2016.
    Retrieved from: http://www.aces-society.org/includes/downloadpaper.php?of=ACES_Express_Journal_February_2016&nf=ej-16-2-full
    Retrieved on: Jan. 5, 2017
  2. B. K. Engiz, Ç. Kurnaz, “Long-Term Electromagnetic Field Measurement and Assessment for a Shopping Mall,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, vol. 175, no. 3, pp. 321 – 329, Nov. 2016.
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncw343
    PMid: 27885087
  3. A. Mousa, “Electromagnetic radiation measurements and safety issues of same cellular base stations in Nablus,” Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 35 – 42, Feb. 2011.
    Retrieved from: http://www.jestr.org/downloads/volume4/fulltext072011.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 5, 2017
  4. O. Genç, M. Bayrak and E. Yaldız, “Analysis of the effects of GSM bands to the electromagnetic pollution in the RF spectrum,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. PIER, vol. 101, pp. 17 – 32, 2010.
    DOI: 10.2528/PIER09111004
  5. S. Miclaus and P. Bechet, “Estimated and Measured values of the Radiofrequency Radiation Power Density around Cellular Base Stations,” Rom. J. Phys., vol. 52, no. 3-4, pp. 429 – 440, 2007.
    Retrieved from: http://www.nipne.ro/rjp/2007_52_3-4/0429_0441.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 5, 2017
  6. L. Seyfi, “Measurement of electromagnetic radiation with respect to the hours and days of a week at 100kHz–3GHz frequency band in a Turkish dwelling,” Measurement, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 3002 – 3009, Nov. 2013.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2013.06.021
  7. P. Baltrenas and R. Buckus, “Measurements and analysis of the electromagnetic fields of mobile communication antennas,” Measurement, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 3942 – 3949, Dec. 2013.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2013.08.008
  8. M. Koprivica, V. Slavkovic, N. Neskovic, A. Neskovic, “Statistical Analysis of Electromagnetic Radiation Measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS Base Station Installed on Buildings in Serbia,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, vol. 168, no. 4, pp. 1 – 14, Jul. 2015.
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncv372
    PMid: 26231558
  9. T. Karadag, M. Yüceer and T. Abbasov, “A Large-Scale Measurement, Analysis And Modelling of Electromagnetic Radiation Levels in the Vicinity of GSM/UMTS Base Stations in an Urban Area,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 1 – 14, Jan. 2016.
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncv008
    PMid: 25693600
  10. “ICNIRP Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300GHz),” Health Physics, vol. 74, no. 4. pp. 494 – 522, 1998.
    Retrieved from: http://www.icnirp.org/cms/upload/publications/ICNIRPemfgdl.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 5, 2017
  11. Bilgi Teknolojileri ve İletişim Kurumundan. (9 Ekim 2015). Sayı 29497 Elektronik haberleşme cihazlarindan kaynaklanan elektromanyetik alan şiddetinin uluslararasi standartlara göre maruziyet limit değerlerinin belirlenmesi, kontrolü ve denetimi hakkinda yönetmelikte değişiklik yapilmasina dair yönetmelik. (Information and Communication Technologies Authority of Turkey. (Oct. 9, 2015). Law no. 29497 Ordinance change on By-Law on Determination, Control and Inspection of the Limit Values of Electromagnetic Field Force from The Electronic Communication Devices According to International Standards.)
  12. Retreieved from: http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2015/10/20151009-2.htm
    Retrieved on: Jan. 5, 2017
  13. PMM 8053B Field Probes Catalog, Narda Safety Test Solutions, Pfullingen, Germany.
    Retrieved from: http://www.pmm.eu/includes/sendfile.asp?nomep=Field_Probes
    Retrieved on: Feb. 2, 2017