Vol. 2, 2017



N. M. Hovhannisyan, A. G. Karapetyan, V. S. Grigoryan

Pages: 1-5

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.01

The aim of the current research was to detect and assess the cytogenetic disorders of disaster fighters of Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe, depending on radiation and non-radiation factors in the early and distant post-disaster periods with the help of system analysis methods. One can come across works dedicated to the study of genetic disorders of organisms exposed to a high level of radiation, but there are not enough data about the changes in these indices in case of low level radiation (lower than 1 Gy). This is the reason why it is of interest to find out the role of cytogenetic indices in the development of radiobiological effects in case of low dosage exposure. The results of regression, factorial dispersive multi regression and discriminant analyses methods of cytogenetic indices are presented in the study.
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Masatsugu Ohgami, Nobuhiko Takai, Masahiko Watanabe, Koichi Ando, Akiko Uzawa, Ryoichi Hirayama

Pages: 6-10

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.02

The intestinal crypt stem cells in gut have a high growth potential and radiosensitivity, it is dose-dependently reduced by heavy-ion irradiation and intestinal death occurs by arrest of epithelial cells supply in high dose area. The radiation to abdominal cancer, for example uterus and bladder, could give impairments not only on tumor, but also on gut nearby target. Therefore, the development of radioprotective agents for gut may contribute to more effective and less harmful heavy-ion therapy. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is one of glutamate receptors and NMDAR antagonist has been reported to prevent the radiation-induced injuries in the central nervous system. Thus, we examined whether the peripheral NMDAR activation is a possible cause of gut injuries in mice irradiated with carbon-ion beam. We compared the dose-dependent change in the number of crypts after irradiation between treated MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg), a noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist, and untreated mice in order to confirm a MK-801 radioprotective effect on crypts. Compared with the sham group, the number of crypts in MK-801 group was significantly increased at 12.0 Gy or over. The radiolabeled [3H]MK-801 was intravenously injected with C3H female mice received 9 Gy whole body irradiation (290 MeV/u, 20 keV/μm). The significant increase was observed in [3H]MK-801 at 24 hr and 48 hr after irradiation, followed by decrease thereafter. These results suggest that intestinal NMDAR are most activated at 48 hr after carbon-ion irradiation. Thus, we suggested that radiation-induced gut injuries could be suppressed by NMDAR antagonists as radioprotective agents until 48 hr after carbon-ion exposure.
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S. Yu. Sokovnin, R. A. Vazirov, M. E. Balezin

Pages: 11-14

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.03

The irradiation exposure experiments were carried out by means of the pulsed repetitive nanosecond accelerator URT-0.5 (electron energy of up to 500 keV, a pulse width of 50 ns, pulse repetition rate of up to 200pps). The determination of the distribution of the absorbed dose (AD) in the depth in the polyethylene was conducted by a gray wedge. The measurement of the electron beam AD on the surface of the shell (removed from the eggs) and under the shell, as well as beneath the absorber layer (polyethylene 80 microns thick) was also performed by the film dosimeter. Thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD-500, were used to determine the distribution of the bremsstrahlung AD inside chicken eggs. These results lead to the conclusion that the irradiation of an electron beam with the AD level of 5 kGy is sufficient for complete disinfection on the surface of an egg. The AD inside of it will not exceed 8 cGy because of bremsstrahlung.
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Svetlana Sorokina, Svetlana Zaichkina, Olga Rozanova, Alexander Shemyakov, Helena Smirnova, Sergey Romanchenko, Alsu Dyukina, Olga Vakhrusheva, Vladimir Pikalov

Pages: 15-18

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.04

In connection with the active space exploration and the search for new sources for tumor radiotherapy, studies of the effects of low doses of radiation, which are characterized by a high LET, are currently of particular interest. The therapy with heavy charged particles becomes of more and more interest all over the world, and many medical centers tend to use heavy ion beams in radiotherapy. We investigated the biological effects induced by accelerated 12C ions with an energy of 450 MeV/n in the Bragg peak in a dose range of 0.1–1.5 Gy in mice in vivo. It was found that: (1) the dose dependence of the level of cytogenetic damage in the bone marrow is nonlinear; (2) changes of the thymus and spleen weight index depend on the dose and the quality of radiation, and this index is considerably reduced as compared to that of unirradiated mice; and (3) the level of spontaneous ROS production in blood cells increases in comparison with irradiation at the same doses of X-rays. We calculated the ratio of biological effects under the action of accelerated carbon ions to the effects of same doses of X-ray radiation. The obtained coefficient served as an index of the radiation efficiency (IRE). Thus, it was found that the average IRE value for accelerated carbon ions with an energy of 450 MeV/n in the Bragg peak in the dose range examined varied from 1.1 to 2.4 and was independent of selected biological endpoints in mice in vivo.
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L. G. Stoyanova, L. P. Blinkova, Yu. D. Pakhomov, S. Dbar

Pages: 19-24

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.05

Bacteriocin-producing strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis of different origion were used in our experiments. UV-Irradiation of cells of bacteriocin-synthesis lactoococci of different origion in dose of 7.6–7600 erg/mm2 followed by their selective growth in MRS medium and selection after UV-rays treatment. Some strain of lactococci had double UV treatment. The novel most active bacteriocin-producing strains were restored after lyophilization and storage. An effective dose of treatment of wide strain 229 should be considered to an exposure of 10 minutes. As a result, No.12 with an antibiotic activity of 3850 IU / mL was selected, which is 54 % higher than the initial one. The study of the physiological and biochemical properties of variants, selected after UV-rays treatment, showed that they somewhat changed the rate of their growth and the accumulation of bactericine. The relative activity in the production of bacteriocine was calculated as the ratio of activity values to the number of produced cells. The inactivated homologous strain biomass and aminoacids were applied as the factors of resuscitation. Control - culture liquid without supplements. VBNC cells of opportunistic strains formed with the first days of incubation. After 1 year of incubation Klebsiella pneumoniae 1954, Alcaligenes faecalis 415, Enterobacter aerogenes 418, Proteus vulgaris HX19222, Salmonella typhimurium value VBNC values were statistically equal (97.1 - 99.9%). The strains of L. lactis after 1 day of stress didn’t form colonies up to 60-80%, after 5 days to 82.1 - 99.6%, after 1 year – 99,9%. Unwashed from the culture fluid the inoculated cells proliferated and passed to VBNC faster. With that inoculation the nisin productive activity of cells was lower at 10 - 78 times, depending on strain of L. lactis. The study of resuscitation factors have shown that supplement of homologous inactivated biomass of L. lactis (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%) was effectively with 1% (a magnification of 2.65 at p<0.05) and 0.5% (magnification of 3.75 at p<0.05) only for strain MSU. For strain F 116 marked 4 fold increase in the ability to the cultivation after the addition of 7 aminoacids: (glutamine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, histidine, arginine, valine). The quantitative level of VBNC cells, which formed in the first days of incubation, after 1 year was the same for opportunistic and probiotic cultures (97.1% - 99.9%). All studied resuscitation factors were individually effective for bacterial strains.
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Nobuhiko Takai, Masatsugu Ohgami, Koichi Ando, Akiko Uzawa, Ryoichi Hirayama, Saori Nakamura, Yoshihito Ohba

Pages: 25-29

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.06

Cerebral dysfunction is one of the major concerns associated with radiotherapy of brain tumours. However, little is known about the neurochemical basis of brain dysfunction induced by proton irradiation. We here investigated the early consequences of brain damages caused by a proton beam. Brains of male wistar rats were locally irradiated with a 70 MeV proton beam. The irradiation dose was set at level known to produce vascular change followed by necrosis, which appeared the late period after irradiation with 30 Gy. The eight-arm radial maze task in irradiated rats was used. In order to assess the preservation (recall) of memory, the rats that showed the spatial cognition were irradiated. The impairment of the preservation memory was not observed in the irradiated rats compared to the control ones 24 hrs after irradiation. Repeated measures of two-way ANOVA of correct choices and number of errors showed no differences between the control group and 30 Gy irradiated group. In order to assess the acquisition process of memory and working memory for the platform location in the water maze, the task was started on the 24 hrs after irradiation. In the learning task (the acquisition process of memory), there was no difference between the control group and irradiated group in the latency to platform. The rats that memorized the location of the standard position were irradiated, and the impairment of the long-term memory was not observed in the irradiated rats compared to the control ones 24 hrs after irradiation. However, the irradiated rats required a substantially longer time finding out the platform than the control rats when the platform was placed in a non-standard position. From this it follows that a proton dose of 30 Gy impaired the working memory of rats. The function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was analyzed by in vivo binding assay using radioligand quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]QNB). The irradiated rats were intravenously injected with 5.5 MBq of [3H]QNB on the 24 hrs after the irradiation. Autoradiographic studies showed a transitional increase of [3H]QNB in-vivo binding in the early phase after proton irradiation. On the other hand, no change in in-vitro [3H]QNB binding was seen in the autoradiogram of brain slices from the irradiated rats. The cerebral blood flow and the histopathological change in the brain appeared at 5 or 6 months after irradiation. These results indicate that the relation between behavioral impairment caused by radiation is closely related to the early change in the receptor function which could be detected in in-vivo conditions.
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Radiation Chemistry


P. V. Nazarova , V. I. Volk, K. N. Dvoeglazov

Pages: 30-33

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.07

The recycling process of high-burnt irradiated nuclear fuels requires the organic reductant that is used during the previous stage to be deconstructed and Pu (III) to be oxidized to Pu (IV) before the extraction stage. Because of this, a reagentless method of oxidation using a carbon catalyst was proposed, and a search of different types of carbonic catalysts used in other scientific and technological areas was conducted. These experiments led to the choice of SKN carbon and optimal conditions for conducting reagentless catalytic oxidation of hydrazine derivatives and Pu (III) in nitric acid solutions.
  1. V. I. Marchenko, V. N. Alekseenko, K. N. Dvoeglazov, “Organic reductants of Pu and Np Ions in wet thechnology for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing,” Radiochemistry, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 366-377, Jul. 2015.
    DOI: 10.1134/S1066362215040050
  2. В. И. Волк, С. Н. Веселов и другие, “Способ разделения урана и плутония в экстракционной технологии переработки отработавшего ядерного топлива,” Патент 2449393, 27.04.2012. (V. I. Volk, S. N. Veselov et al., “Method to separate uranium and plutonium,” Patent RU 2449393 C2, Apr. 27, 2012.)
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  3. М. С. Тюменцев, Т. С. Лапицкая, Г. Б. Быков, А. В. Ананьев, “Каталитическое разложение гидразина на рутениевых и биметаллических Pt-Ru катализаторах в азотнокислых растворах,” VII Росc. конф. по радиохим. Радиохимия 2012,Димитровград, Россия, 2012, стр. 92. (M. S. Tyumentsev, T. S. Lapitskaya, G. L. Bykov, A. V. Ananiev, “Catalytic decomposition of hydrazine to ruthenium and bimetallic Pt-Ru catalysts in nitric acid solutions,” in Proc. VII Russ. Conf. on radiochem. “Radiochemistry – 2012”, Dimitrovgrad, Russia, 2012, p. 92.)
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  4. G. Bhargvagi, B. Sireesha, “Equilibrium and spectral studies on ligational behaviour of N,N’-diformylhydrazine,” Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 23 – 28, 2003.
    DOI: 10.1007/BF02899315


O. A. Zavalina, K. N. Dvoeglazov, E. Yu. Pavlyukevich, P. V. Nazarova, V. N. Alekseenko

Pages: 34-37

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.08

The kinetics of Pu(VI) and Np(VI) recovery by carbohydrazide in an aqueous nitric acid solution was researched spectrophotometrically. Regarding to Pu(VI) it was established that in the interval of [HNO3] = 0.75-3.0 M and [CO(N2H3)2] = 0.1-0.4 M, the reaction rate was proportional to the concentration of Pu(VI). The reaction order with respect to carbohydrazide was determined to be 2.3, and -3 to nitric acid. The found activation energy of the reaction was 111 kJ·mol−1. Regarding Np(VI), it was found that in the interval of [HNO3] = 0.75-3.0 M and [CO(N2H3)2] = 0.03-0.12 M, the reaction rate was proportional to the Np(VI) concentration. Reaction order with respect to carbohydrazide was determined to be 1.15, and -1.35 with respect to nitric acid. The found activation energy of the reaction was 85 kJ·mol−1. Based on this kinetic data, a possible fundamental reaction mechanism was theorized
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    DOI: 10.1134/S1066362212020087
  3. V. S. Koltunov, V. G. Pastushyak, E. A. Mezhov, G. V. Koltunov, “Kinetics of Reactions of Np and Pu Ions with Hydrazine Derivatives: XVII. Reaction of Pu(VI) with Hydroxyethylhydrazine,” Radiochemistry, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 125 - 130, Mar. 2004.
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  5. V. I. Marchenko, V. N. Alekseenko, K. N. Dvoeglazov “Organic reductants of Pu and Np rons in wet technology for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing,” Radiochemistry, vol. 57, no. 4. pp. 366–377, Jul. 2015.
    DOI: 10.1134/S1066362215040050
  6. V. S. Koltunov, “Kinetics and Mechanism of RedOx Reactions of Np and Pu Ions with Several Organic Reductants,” J. Nucl. Sci. and Techn., vol. 39, no. suppl. 3, pp. 347-350, Nov. 2002.
    DOI: 10.1080/00223131.2002.10875480
  7. D. Y. Leshok, V. N. Alekseenko, P. M. Gavrilov et al., “Uranyl tris - (carbohydrazide) nitrate [UO2((N2H3)2CO)3](NO3)2: synthesis, structure and properties,” Radiochimica Acta, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 477-486, Jul. 2015.
    DOI: 10.1515/ract-2014-2337

Radiation Physics


I. F. Myronyuk, H. V. Vasylyeva, O.V. Vasylyev

Pages: 38-42

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.09

This paper investigates the probability of activation of zirconium atoms under irradiation of Bremsstrahlung gamma-rays with maximum energy of 24 MeV. The neutron flux of (ɤ, n)-reaction on nuclei of zirconium was measured using the method of activation detectors. It is suggested that the activation of zirconium atoms and the isomeric transitions of zirconium isotopes are the main cause of radiation defects in materials containing zirconium.
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    DOI: 10.15330/pcss.16.2.322-326
  3. Г. В. Рогулич, Г. В. Васильєва, М. Т. Саболчій, “Особливости використання гальмiвних гамма-квантiв для вимipювання виходу 141-Ba в реакцiях фотоподiлу на ядрах урану,” в ІЕФ-2015, Ужгород, Україна, 2015, стор. 258 – 260. (H. V. Rogulych, H. V. Vasylyeva, M. T. Sabolchy, “Features of Bremsstrahlung gamma rays to measure output of 141Ba in photo fission reactions on nuclei of uranium,” in Proc. IEF-2015, Uzhgorod, Ukraine, 2015, pp. 258 – 260.)
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Radiation in Medicine


V. N. Panteleev , A. E. Barzakh, L. Kh. Batist, D. V. Fedorov, V. S. Ivanov, S. A. Krotov, F. V. Moroz, P. L. Molkanov, S. Yu. Orlov, Yu. M. Volkov

Pages: 43-47

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.10

At PNPI NRC KI (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute of National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”), a high current cyclotron C-80 has been put into operation recently. External proton beam of the energy of 70 MeV and intensity of 100 μA has been obtained. Presently, the work is being carried out to obtain the planned beam parameters: the energy up to 80 MeV and the current up to 200 μA. The main goal of the C-80 is the production of medical radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. One of the cyclotron beams is intended for the treatment of ophthalmologic diseases by irradiation of malignant eye formation. The radioisotope complex RIC-80 (Radioactive Isotopes at cyclotron C-80) which is constructed at the beam of C-80 will allow us to obtain sources of high activity practically for the whole list of radionuclides produced at accelerators. An essential peculiarity of the RIC-80 is the use of an on-line mass-separator connected to one of the target stations that will allow the production of separated radionuclides of high purity. The target prototypes intended for the production of different radionuclides at the RIC-80 target stations are being studied and developed. The results of different target material tests for the production of 67Cu, 82Sr and other radioisotopes are presented. A new method of a high-temperature separation of the target materials and produced radioactive isotopes has been discussed.
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  2. V. N. Panteleev et al., “Project of the radioisotope facility RIC-80 at PNPI,” in Main Scientific Activities 2007-2012, A. E. Barzakh, D. V. Balin, V. A. Guzey, A. A. Vasilyev, P. A. Kravtsov, Eds., 1st ed., Gatchina, Russia: PNPI of NRC “Kurchatov Institute,” 2013, pp. 278-282.
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  3. V. N. Panteleev et al., “The radioisotope complex project “RIC-80” at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 86, no. 12, p. 123510, Dec. 2015.
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  4. S. A. Artamonov et al., “Design features of the 80 MeV H- isochronous cyclotron in Gatchina,” in Main Scientific Activities 2007-2012, A. E. Barzakh, D. V. Balin, V. A. Guzey, A. A. Vasilyev, P. A. Kravtsov, Eds., 1st ed., Gatchina, Russia: PNPI of NRC “Kurchatov Institute,” 2013, pp. 332-338.
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  6. V. N. Panteleev et al., “Status of the Project of Radioisotope Complex RIC-80 (Radioisotopes at Cyclotron C-80) at PNPI,” Rad. Applic., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 95 – 100, Oct. 2016.
    DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2016.02.017

Radiation Measurements


Nevenka M. Antović, Sergey K. Andrukhovich, Nikola Svrkota

Pages: 48-54

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.11

Double background coincidences at two multidetector spectrometers, which have 6 and 32 NaI(Tl) detectors and registration geometry close to 4π (PRIPYAT-2M and ARGUS), are considered as a sum of true and random ones. They have been analyzed together with the energy resolution and efficiency of 137Cs, 65Zn and 40K (photons with energy of 662 keV, 1116 keV and 1461 keV, respectively) detection in the full absorption peak (individual detectors and the whole spectrometers). The number of detector-duplet combinations registering double coincidences was 15 and 496, respectively (an angle from the spectrometer centers to the detecor centers ranged from 37.38° to ~180°). Double background coincidences in the whole energy range in dependence on the detector arrangement, as well as double coincidences caused by monoenergetic sources in the whole energy range, showed that main contributors to the background double coincidences at the spectrometers PRIPYAT and ARGUS are coinciding photons, which were scattered from detector to detector. In the 32-detector system, the minimum, maximum, arithmetic mean and standard deviation of the background double coincidences counting rates in the whole energy range were found to be 0.034 (detector pairs at 79.19°), 0.142 (37.38°), 0.066, 0.033 cps, respectively. The same values for the background double coincidences counting rates coming from monoenergetic sources were 0.974 (63.43°), 4.646 (41.81°), 3.0724, 1.167 cps, respectively (137Cs), and 0.389 (63.43°), 18.706 (~180°), 2.794, 5.294 cps, respectively (65Zn), while for the background double coincidences counting rates in the photo-peak regions – 0.003 (63.43°), 0.0114 (41.81°), 0.0074, 0.0029 cps, respectively (region 662 keV), and 0.0056 (63.43°), 0.0241 (37.38°), 0.0148, 0.006 cps, respectively (region 1116 keV). In the 6-detector system, average counting rates of the background double coincidences in the whole energy range were 0.539 cps (90°) and 0.544 cps (180°), those of the double coincidences from monoenergetic sources – 0.867 cps (90°) and 0.862 cps (180°) – 137Cs, 1.993 cps (90°) and 1.986 cps (180°) – 40K, and those of the background double coincidences in the photo-peak regions – 0.0825 cps (90°) and 0.0749 cps (180°) – region 662 keV, 0.0426 cps (90°) and 0.0428 cps (180°) – region 1461 keV.
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  5. N. M. Antović, S. K. Andrukhovich, A. V. Berestov, “A contribution of the Compton scattered radiation from Mn-54 to double gamma coincidences spectra at the 32-detector system,” in Proc. Conf. RAD 2014, Niš, Serbia, 2014, pp. 127 – 130.
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    DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.06.003
    PMid: 19577345


Şamil Osman Gürdal, S. Sinan Keskin, Mehmet Tombakoğlu

Pages: 55-58

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.12

Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry (OSLD) has been used for dose measurements in many different radiation fields for personal monitoring and medical and industrial applications. One of the most important advantages of the OSLD compared to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) is the light source used to stimulate the crystal. On the other hand, there is a discrimination problem between the light used in a stimulation and the luminescence light obtained as a result of stimulation. To measure the correct dose value, the stimulation and luminescence light have to be discriminated precisely by using different optic filters such as UV blocking, long and short band filters. In addition, the OSL readers are calibrated under fixed conditions (normal operating condition of optic filters, light source, photomultiplier tube, etc). The measured dose values are very sensitive to changes in normal operating conditions. In this work, the dust buildup factor on the optic filters is studied to analyse the response of BeO OSL dosimeter system. The elemental composition of suspended dust was determined by using the literature given for samples obtained from different indoor locations in Turkey and abroad. The light transport algorithm is used to simulate BeO OSL dosimeter system’s response with and without dust buildup by means of Monte Carlo photon transport technique. The Coherent and incoherent scattering of the light, as well as other photon interaction mechanisms, were explicitly modelled in Monte Carlo simulations. The dust buildup effects on OSL spectrum were investigated in detail as a function of dust thickness on the optic filters and elemental composition of the dust.
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    DOI: 10.1002/9780470977064.ch2
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N. Mirzajani, S. O. Souza, F. d’Errico

Pages: 59-63

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.13

The transport and interactions of gamma-rays in a thin film loaded with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) nanoparticles (NPs) were studied by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). In the MC input file, the geometry of the thin film was treated as a virtual space using a cubic voxel structure with a lattice of nanoparticles (NPs) of OSL CaF2:Ce. The particles were monodispersed, ranging in size from 50 to 600 nm. The polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film matrix was treated as an array simulating a small sample with an area of 13.8 µm by 13.8 µm and a thickness of 10.2 µm. For the irradiation simulations, we considered a collimated beam of cesium-137 gamma-rays of 662 keV impinging perpendicularly on the piece of thin film (detector). The film was centered on the front face of 30 cm x 30 cm x 15 cm ISO water slab phantom. In the MC simulations, we followed the radiation tracks and calculated the energy deposition from the tracks of electrons produced by the interaction histories of the photons crossing the thin film. The energy deposition in the OSL film is initially fairly constant with grain size and then increases as the CaF2:Ce grains get larger to the point of filling 50% of the voxel volume. For grain sizes up to almost 400 nm, the presence of the grains has minimal impact, i.e., the dose is mainly deposited by secondary electrons generated within the polymer. This allows for the design of tissue-equivalent dosimeters even with embedded OSL materials, such as CaF2, that exhibit a higher Z-value than tissue.
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Radiation Protection


Ihar Cheshyk, Diana Suchareva, Aleksander Nikitin

Pages: 64-69

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.14

The effect of microbiological preparations EM-1 and EMX-Gold on the accumulation and excretion of 137Cs in white laboratory male rats after oral administration of the radionuclide was investigated. The activity of 137Cs in the daily diet was 34.95 ± 5.62 Bq/day. After two months of keeping animals on feed contaminated with 137Cs, equilibrium activity of the radioisotope in the body of animals was reached. It was equal to 210–230 Bq/kg. Eight days after changing the diet to a diet clear from the radioisotope feed, the activity concentration of 137Cs in the bodies of rats decreased by 36–39 %. The effective half-life of 137Cs in the bodies of 8-month-old rats under chronic 2-month ingestion of the radioisotope was 352 ± 69 hours, for 10-month-old animals this index was equal to 394 ± 148 hours. The introduction of EM-1 or EMX-Gold in the diet over a period of 2 months reduced the effective half-life of 137Cs by 16–19 % (p < 0.15). A permanent addition of the microbial preparation EM-1 or EMX-Gold to the drinking water did not alter the rate of excretion of the radionuclide from the body after the 4-month maintenance of male rats on a diet contaminated with radioactive cesium.
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Fulger Ciupagea, Constantin Sima, Doru Petru Munteanu, Anton Iuliu Demetriu Coroianu, Gabriela Rosca Fartat

Pages: 70-74

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.15

According to the current ICRP Recommendations, the principles of justification, optimization, and dose limitation for the planned exposure situations are directly applicable to the use of ionizing radiation in the security screening. The use of different X-ray inspection systems is carried out in some States and prohibited in others, and there are no published regulatory decisions on the formal justification of this type of practice. The decision for the use of X-rays involving human imaging for the security screening shall be justified by the government. The aim of this paper is to present the quantitative assessment of the radiation detriments and the expected benefits of a designed screening system, as well as the analysis of the measurements performed to demonstrate the respect of the dose constraints for the members of the public and the conformity with the IAEA recommendations and the applicable standards.
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  2. D. A. Cool, E. Lazo, P. Tattersall, G. Simeonov, S. Niu, “Radiological Protection in Security Screening,” Ann. ICRP, vol. 43, no. 2, 2014.
    DOI: 10.1177/0146645313517031
  3. Justification of Practices, Including Non-Medical Human Imaging, 1st ed., IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 2014.
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  4. Basic Anatomical and Physiological Data for Use in Radiological Protection Reference Values, 1st ed., ICRP, Ottawa, Canada, 2002.
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  8. List of terrorist incidents in India, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Viktória Finta, Sándor Rácz

Pages: 75-79

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.16

Radiological emergencies (RE) are those emergencies which involve radioactive material that is not nuclear but emits ionizing radiation (IR). Although such sources are usually kept and transported shielded and closed, their shielding or packing can be damaged in case of an accident or fire. If the source becomes unshielded or opened, the environmental exposure can increase or even radioactive contamination can occur. Depending on the type and dose, IRs can cause morbidity or even mortality; meanwhile, they can only be detected with special instruments but not our senses. That is why first responders are the most endangered in RE and their radiation protection is the imperative. Thus, even at the initial stage of the intervention, the incident commander (IC) has to tackle several urgent tasks and a huge responsibility on the occupational safety of the interveners. Therefore, beside the technical support, training and education are also essential in the appropriate handling of risks. The paper introduces some issues of this special field and presents a start-up Hungarian research.
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  7. Gy. Pátzay, J. Dobor, Ipari tevékenységekből eredő veszélyforrások és elhárításuk, egyetemi jegyzet, Budapest, Magyarország: Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem, 2016, pp. 72-98. (Gy. Pátzay, J. Dobor, Threats of industrial activities and their recovery university notes, Budapest, Hungary: National University of Public Service, 2016, pp. 72-98.)
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  10. Á. Restás, “A tűzoltásvezetők döntéseit elősegítő praktikák,” Bolyai Szemle, évf. 22, szám 3, pp. 75 – 90, 2013. (Á. Restás, “Practices supporting decision making of fire fighters”, Bolyai Szemle, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 75 – 89, 2013.)
  11. P. Pántya, “What could help for the firefighting, technical rescues?” in Advances in Fire, Safety and Security Research 2015, S. Galla, A. Majlingova, B. Toman, Eds., Bratislava, Slovak Republic: FRI Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic, 2015, pp. 60 – 65.
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  12. SOR/T – SOR/R Ambient/LLR and Tactical Electronic Dosimeter, Larus Systems, Ellicott City (MD), USA.
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  13. V. Finta, S. Rácz, “Tűzoltói beavatkozás radiológiai eseménykezelésnél,” Védelem Tudomány, évf. 1, szám 3, pp. 68 – 77, 2016. (V. Finta, S. Rácz, “Deployment during a radiological event,” Védelem Tudomány, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 68 – 77, 2016.)
    Retrieved from: http://www.vedelemtudomany.hu/articles/06-finta-racz.pdf
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Natasha Ivanova, Severina Ivanova

Pages: 80-84

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.17

On 10 September 2012, the Regional Health Inspectorate (RHI) in Varna received a signal for a radiation incident that occurred in Polimeri AD: three level switches, containing radionuclide cesium 137 had been stolen. The investigators found that the theft was carried out on 2 September 2012 by Roma residents of the residential area Gabena Mahala, Devnya. After the theft, the sources have been dismantled from their protective shielding and hidden in the neighborhood of the thieves. The sources were detected and removed from the living area after a joined action of the police department in Devnya, the Regional Health Inspectorate (RHI) Varna and the Civil Protection - Varna. Later, the radioactive sources were stored in the temporary repository for radioactive waste (RRW) of Polimeri AD. During the radiation incident and the elimination of the consequences the author of the article worked as an inspector physicist in the Department for Radiation Control at the Regional Health Inspectorate Varna and participated directly in all activities regarding the removal of the hidden resources and storing them in the repository for radioactive waste, as well as in all inspections and corrective actions.
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  2. Г. Василев, Основни принципи на радиационната защита, София, България: Тита Консулт, 2008, стр. 73 и 125. (G.Vassilev, Basic principles of radiation protection, Sofia, Bulgaria: Theta Consult, 2008, pр. 73, 125.)
  3. N. Ivanova, S. Ivanova, “Radiation incident in "Polimeri" Devnya, actions and safety measures: a case study,” Ecology & Safety, vol. 10, pp. 515-523, 2016.
    Retrieved from: https://www.scientific-publications.net/get/1000017/1482509635891347.pdf
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  4. Агенция за ядрено регулиране. (05.10.2012.). ПМС № 229 Наредба за Основните норми на радиационна защита. (Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency. (Oct. 5, 2012). PMS no. 229 Decree on Basic Norms for Radiation Protection.)
    Retrieved from: http://www.bnra.bg/bg/documents/legislation/regulations/reg-onrz-2012.pdf
    Retrieved on: Feb. 12, 2017


Çetin Kurnaz, Begüm Korunur Engiz, Ahmet Turgut

Pages: 85-89

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.18

In parallel with technological developments, cellular systems and therefore base stations have begun to take up more space in our daily lives. Since each base station behaves like a radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) source, this increase in base stations leads to an increase in the value of RF-EMF. Therefore, it is very important to measure and evaluate the RF-EMF emitted from the base stations regarding its influence on human health. In this study, RF-EMF measurements were taken in ten different locations (schools, hospitals, homes, shopping malls, etc.) during 24 hours to investigate the time/location dependent changes in RF-EMF. For the measurement, the PMM8053 EMF meter measuring the total RF-EMF in the frequency range of 100 kHz-3 GHz was used, the highest electric field strengths (Emax) in the environment and the average electric field strengths (Eavg) were recorded. The measurement results show that the electric field strengths (E) originating from the base stations change significantly depending on the measurement location and time (usage intensity). The changes in E measured during the daytime in the home environment are softer, while for workplaces they are sharper due to opening/closing time. It is seen from the measurements that the highest Emax is 7.88V/m and the highest Eavg is 2.95V/m. In order to analyze the 24-hour measurements more precisely, four specific time intervals such as morning (6am-12am), afternoon (12am-6pm), evening (6pm-12pm) and night (12pm-6am) were selected. The mean E value for morning is 1.55V/m, while they are 1.94V/m, 1.48V/m and 1.16V/m for afternoon, evening and night respectively. E level at night increases by 67.2% compared to in the afternoon. At the end of the study, daily variations of E values were examined and empirical models were proposed using curve fitting methods. With the use of these models, the E in the environment can be predicted with an accuracy of up to 95%.
  1. Ç. Kurnaz, “An Empirical Modelling of Electromagnetic Pollution on an University Campus,” The Applied Computational Electromagnetic Society Express Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 76 – 79, Feb. 2016.
    Retrieved from: http://www.aces-society.org/includes/downloadpaper.php?of=ACES_Express_Journal_February_2016&nf=ej-16-2-full
    Retrieved on: Jan. 5, 2017
  2. B. K. Engiz, Ç. Kurnaz, “Long-Term Electromagnetic Field Measurement and Assessment for a Shopping Mall,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, vol. 175, no. 3, pp. 321 – 329, Nov. 2016.
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncw343
    PMid: 27885087
  3. A. Mousa, “Electromagnetic radiation measurements and safety issues of same cellular base stations in Nablus,” Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 35 – 42, Feb. 2011.
    Retrieved from: http://www.jestr.org/downloads/volume4/fulltext072011.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 5, 2017
  4. O. Genç, M. Bayrak and E. Yaldız, “Analysis of the effects of GSM bands to the electromagnetic pollution in the RF spectrum,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. PIER, vol. 101, pp. 17 – 32, 2010.
    DOI: 10.2528/PIER09111004
  5. S. Miclaus and P. Bechet, “Estimated and Measured values of the Radiofrequency Radiation Power Density around Cellular Base Stations,” Rom. J. Phys., vol. 52, no. 3-4, pp. 429 – 440, 2007.
    Retrieved from: http://www.nipne.ro/rjp/2007_52_3-4/0429_0441.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 5, 2017
  6. L. Seyfi, “Measurement of electromagnetic radiation with respect to the hours and days of a week at 100kHz–3GHz frequency band in a Turkish dwelling,” Measurement, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 3002 – 3009, Nov. 2013.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2013.06.021
  7. P. Baltrenas and R. Buckus, “Measurements and analysis of the electromagnetic fields of mobile communication antennas,” Measurement, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 3942 – 3949, Dec. 2013.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2013.08.008
  8. M. Koprivica, V. Slavkovic, N. Neskovic, A. Neskovic, “Statistical Analysis of Electromagnetic Radiation Measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS Base Station Installed on Buildings in Serbia,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, vol. 168, no. 4, pp. 1 – 14, Jul. 2015.
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncv372
    PMid: 26231558
  9. T. Karadag, M. Yüceer and T. Abbasov, “A Large-Scale Measurement, Analysis And Modelling of Electromagnetic Radiation Levels in the Vicinity of GSM/UMTS Base Stations in an Urban Area,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 1 – 14, Jan. 2016.
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncv008
    PMid: 25693600
  10. “ICNIRP Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300GHz),” Health Physics, vol. 74, no. 4. pp. 494 – 522, 1998.
    Retrieved from: http://www.icnirp.org/cms/upload/publications/ICNIRPemfgdl.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 5, 2017
  11. Bilgi Teknolojileri ve İletişim Kurumundan. (9 Ekim 2015). Sayı 29497 Elektronik haberleşme cihazlarindan kaynaklanan elektromanyetik alan şiddetinin uluslararasi standartlara göre maruziyet limit değerlerinin belirlenmesi, kontrolü ve denetimi hakkinda yönetmelikte değişiklik yapilmasina dair yönetmelik. (Information and Communication Technologies Authority of Turkey. (Oct. 9, 2015). Law no. 29497 Ordinance change on By-Law on Determination, Control and Inspection of the Limit Values of Electromagnetic Field Force from The Electronic Communication Devices According to International Standards.)
  12. Retreieved from: http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2015/10/20151009-2.htm
    Retrieved on: Jan. 5, 2017
  13. PMM 8053B Field Probes Catalog, Narda Safety Test Solutions, Pfullingen, Germany.
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    Retrieved on: Feb. 2, 2017


Çetin Kurnaz, Doğan Yıldız, Serap Karagöl

Pages: 90-94

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.19

The level of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) exposure increases day by day as natural consequences of technological developments. In recent years, the increasing use of cellular systems due to technological developments in wireless communication systems has made it necessary to measure and evaluate RF-EMF originating from base stations which are the basic structure of these systems. In Turkey, as in April 2016, fourth generation of wireless mobile communication technology (4G) has been introduced and additional base stations are continuing to be added to the system. In this study, RF-EMF measurements were taken at four different times in order to examine and evaluate the change of RF-EMF before and after 4G in Atakum district which is one of the most crowded districts of Samsun, Turkey. Two of the measurements were taken before 4G and the remaining measurements were taken after 4G. Each measurement was taken at different times of the day (morning, noon and evening). The measurements were collected from 46 different location using PMM 8053 EMF meter which measures RF-EMF in the broad band from 100 kHz to 3 GHz. In the measurements, the maximum electric field strength (Emax) and the average electric field strength (Eavg) were recorded. The highest values have been noticed in these measurement 9,44 V/m and 17,53 V/m for Eavg and Emax respectively. According to the measurement results, a decrease of 45,95% was observed in the measurement values of the morning hours compared to the measurement values of the evening and noon hours. The average RF-EMF value after 4G introduced has increased by 30,95% compared to before 4G. Apart from these measurements, 24 hour measurements were taken at a location where the highest value was observed and was analyzed to observe the change of RF-EMFs during a day.
  1. Ç. Kurnaz, “An Empirical Modelling of Electromagnetic Pollution on an University Campus,” The Applied Computational Electromagnetic Society Express Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp.76-79, Feb. 2016.
    Retrieved from: http://www.aces-society.org/includes/downloadpaper.php?of=ACES_Express_Journal_February_2016_Paper_10&nf=ej-16-2-10
    Retrieved on: Jan. 9, 2017
  2. B. K. Engiz, Ç. Kurnaz, “Long-Term Electromagnetic Field Measurement and Assessment for a Shopping Mall,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Nov. 2016.
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncw343
  3. B. K. Gül, Ç. Kurnaz, B. K. Engiz, “Measurement and Evaluation of Electromagnetic Pollution in Ondokuz Mayıs University Kurupelit Campus in Samsun, Turkey,” in Proc. Third International Conference on Advances in Information Processing and Communication Technology, Rome, Italy, 2015, pp.80-84.
    Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305387736_Measurement_and_Evaluation_of_Electromagnetic_Pollution_in_Ondokuz_Mayis_University_Kurupelit_Campus_in_Samsun_Turkey
    Retrieved on: Jan. 27, 2017
  4. A. Mousa, “Electromagnetic radiation measurements and safety issues of some cellular base stations in Nablus,” Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 35-42, Feb. 2011.
    Retrieved from: http://www.jestr.org/downloads/volume4/fulltext072011.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 27, 2017
  5. O. Genç, M. Bayrak, E. Yaldız, “Analysis of the effects of GSM bands to the electromagnetic pollution in the RF spectrum,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. PIER, vol. 101, pp. 17-32, 2010.
    DOI: 10.2528/PIER09111004
  6. S. Miclaus, P. Bechet, “Estimated and Measured values of the Radiofrequency Radiation Power Density around Cellular Base Stations,” Rom. Journ. Phys., vol. 52, no. 3–4, pp. 429–440, 2007.
    Retrieved from: http://www.nipne.ro/rjp/2007_52_3-4/0429_0441.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 7, 2017
  7. L. Seyfi, “Measurement of electromagnetic radiation with respect to the hours and days of a week at 100kHz–3GHz frequency band in a Turkish dwelling,” Measurement, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 3002-3009, Nov. 2013.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2013.06.021
  8. P. Baltrenas, R. Buckus, “Measurements and analysis of the electromagnetic fields of mobile communication antennas,” Measurement, vol. 46, no. 10, pp.3942-3949, Dec. 2013.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2013.08.008
  9. M. Koprivica, V. Slavkovic, N. Neskovic, A. Neskovic, “Statistical Analysis of Electromagnetic Radiation Measurements in the Vicinity of GSM/UMTS Base Station Installed on Buildings in Serbia,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, vol. 168, no. 4, pp. 489-502, Mar. 2016.
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncv372
    PMid: 26231558
  10. T. Karadag, M. Yüceer, T. Abbasov, “A Large-Scale Measurement, Analysis And Modelling of Electromagnetic Radiation Levels in the Vicinity of GSM/UMTS Base Stations in an Urban Area,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 1-14, Jan. 2016.
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncv008
    PMid: 25693600
  11. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300GHz),” Health Physics, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 494-522, 1998.
    Retrieved from: http://www.icnirp.org/cms/upload/publications/ICNIRPemfgdl.pdf
    Retrieved on: Jan. 25, 2017
  12. Information and Communication Technologies Authority of Turkey. (Oct. 9, 2015). Law no. 29497 Ordinance change on By-Law on Determination, Control and Inspection of the Limit Values of Electromagnetic Field Force from The Electronic Communication Devices According to International Standards.
  13. PMM 8053B Field Probes Catalog, Narda Safety Test Solutions, Savona, Italy.
    Retrieved from: www.pmm.eu/includes/sendfile.asp?nomep=Field_Probes
    Retrieved on: Feb. 14, 2017


Zoran Mirkov

Pages: 95-98

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.20

For the purposes of this study, the quality control was carried out on 40 intraoral and 20 panoramic dental x-ray units in use in the public and private sector in Serbia. Parts of the quality control which are derived were: visual inspection of the dental x-ray units and related equipment, performance testing of the dental x-ray units and inspection of the radiation protection facilities for patient, personnel and population. Results show that most of the examined devices (88% intraoral and 95% panoramic x-ray units) operate within regulatory standards. The worst results showed intraoral devices that operate on 50 kV within the repeatability of exposure time and the lack of adequate filtration. The main reason for this is the irregular and insufficient servicing of x-ray units and related equipment.
  1. “UNSCEAR 2008 Report: Sources and effects of ionizing radiation,” UNSCR, New York (NY), USA, Rep. 2008(vol. 1), 2008.
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Stevan Musicki, Dejan Vasovic, Srdjan Markovic

Pages: 99-103

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.21

The term of radiation hazards is connected to the hazardous levels of ionizing radiation that could be harmful to the living tissue. Reflecting the contemporary lifestyle the World Health Organization (WHO), stated that as the use of ionizing radiation increases, so does the potential for health hazards if not properly used or contained. The increased rate of ionizing radiation can be attributed to the variety of anthropogenic activities, ranging from ore extraction, medical services, and energy production to military installations. At the other hand, radiation protection practices term indicates the measures directed to the protection of humans, at the first place, and other living organism from the harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. In that sense, efficient and effective radiation protection from the perspective of society usually involves minimizing costs and capital commitment in any way. On the other hand, effective and efficient radiation protection management activities from the perspective of the army involve broader radiation protection measures during peacetime, emergencies and even wartime. The aim of this paper is to help development of an integrative review for radiation protection, addressing the contemporary needs within the different but prominent stakeholders: civil and military structures. The paper offers an in-depth analysis of related core terms: radiation protection principles and modalities of protection. The applied methodology consists of comparative structure analysis and evaluation of available data. Obtained results are intended to be used in further implementation processes regarding the radiation protection practices both in civil and military structures.
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Jozef Sabol, Bedřich Šesták

Pages: 104-108

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.22

The purpose of radiation protection is to protect workers, patients and members of the general public against any excessive impact of exposure to ionizing radiation, and to control the radioactive contamination of the environment in accordance with the strict regulatory standards. In order to adopt any measures to regulate the exposure from various sources, it is necessary to introduce a reliable and consistent system of the quantification of radiation exposure due to external and internal sources. Only very low doses (comparable with the natural radiation background) are encountered under normal circumstances. Such exposures may result in stochastic (delayed) effects, where the probability of their occurrence is proportional to the magnitude of the effective dose expressed in Sv (sievert). While for the stochastic effects only the unit of Sv can be used, for the quantification of deterministic effects (tissue reaction), which occur at rather higher doses, other quantities and units are more appropriate. In this case, one relies on a new quantity, namely RBE-weighted dose with a unit of Eq-Gy (equivalent gray). The paper offers some original illustrations of the system of quantities for assessing both stochastic and deterministic harmful effects of ionizing radiation.
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Liuba Corețchi, Irina Plăvan, Serghei Virlan, Ion Ursulean, Ion Bahnarel

Pages: 109-114

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.23

Pollution and contamination of drinking water potentially cause severe problems to health so the water quality management addresses both national and international action to assess and prevent associated hazards. A survey to study natural radioactivity in drinking water was carried out in the Republic of Moldova. Approximately 3111 samples of drinking water were analyzed between 1985-1999 and 2011-2015. The samples were categorized according to their origin: bottled or public supply. The samples were analyzed for gross beta, 220Rn, 222Rn, 137Cs and 90Sr activity. The activity concentration for gross beta was found to range from 0.41 to 1.53 Bq/L. The gross beta activity content in the majority of the samples is due to 40K. Average concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr activity in the studied waters ranged respectively from 0.02 to 3.2 Bq/L and 0.012 to 2.2 Bq/L. Regarding radon detection, the results showed that the average concentration of radon in artesian wells was 1.93 Bq/m3; in the aqueduct water – 3.12 Bq/m3; in the spring waters – 6.17 Bq/m3; in wells – 3.87 Bq/m3, in bottled water – 0.1 Bq/l, in mine water – 0.93 Bq/l and in the surface water ─ about 1 Bq/m3. It was stated that 222Rn concentrations in the surveyed waters did not exceed the permissible values according to national rules and Directive 2013/59/EURATOM.
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O. Jefanova, E. D. Marčiulionienė, D. Montvydienė, Z. Žukauskaitė, B. Lukšienė, J. Mažeika

Pages: 115-120

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.24

The aim of this study is to assess the impact of nuclear facility effluent during decommissioning process on the seed germination and growth of the test organism Lepidium sativum, as well as to assess the biological effect of Cs-137 on the roots (meristematic cells) and sprouts (cells of parenchyma) of the test organism Lepidium sativum.The investigations were performed on water and the bottom sediment from the monitoring station of Lake Drūkšiai (the cooling-pond of the Ignalina NPP), as well as from the Ignalina NPP's effluent channels IRD-1,2 (industrial rain drainage channel) and TWO (technical water outlet channel) before the INPP shutdown (2007–2009) and after (2010–2015). The 137Cs impact on the test organism using the low activity concentration solutions of 25 and 250 Bq/L was also investigated.
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Borjana Vranješ, Branislava Mitrović, Velibor Andrić, Jelena Ajtić, Mila Vranješ

Pages: 121-125

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.25

Mineral additives, such as monocalcium phosphate, that are commonly used on pig farms, are obtained by processing phosphate mineral ore, and can contain high levels of 238U. Since ingestion is the main route of radioactive contamination of both animals and humans, the goal of this paper is to measure specific activity of natural and artificial radionuclides in monocalcium phosphate and complete feed mixtures for pigs. Mineral additives with high levels of natural radionuclides can contaminate complete feed mixtures making them unsuitable for use. Samples were collected from three different farms, and in total fifteen samples of monocalcium and forty five samples of complete feed mixture were measured. Samples of monocalcium phosphate show the 238U activity concentration of 13.2-2097Bq/kg. Other naturally occurring radionuclides are measured in monocalcium and the results give: 21.4-25.5 Bq/kg for 40K, 1.5 -12.1 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 1.5-2.9 Bq/kg for 232Th, and 1.5-10.8 Bq/kg for 214Bi. These radionuclides are further measured in complete feed mixtures and only one sample shows elevated concentrations of 238U (3.1 Bq/kg) and 226Ra (3.5 Bq/kg). Potassium-40 is detected in all samples, with the specific activity range 208-329 Bq/kg, while other naturally occurring radionuclides and artificial radioceasium are below the detection limits.
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Michael Zhukovsky, Aleksey Vasilyev, Aleksey Ekidin, Maksim Vasyanovich, Maria Pyshkina, Maksim Semenov, Ekaterina Murashova, Ivan Kapustin

Pages: 126-131

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.26

Comparison of radionuclide specific indicators in airborne discharges to atmosphere from European and Russian nuclear power plants was carried out. The performed analysis allows determining airborne discharge structure and the environmental impact of nuclear power plant with different types of reactor. Analysis of experimental data on radioactive airborne discharges from Russian nuclear power plants is carried out. The nuclear power plants with three different kinds of reactors are investigated. The performed analysis allows determining the list of radionuclides in airborne discharges, which give from 84 to 99 % of radiation exposure population.
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Radon and Thoron


A. Awhida, P. Ujić, P. Kolarž, I. Čeliković, M. Milinčić, A. Lončar, B. Lončar

Pages: 132-136

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.27

With an increase in the awareness of the need to save energy, residents tend to live in dwellings with increasingly tight windows and doors, thus reducing the ventilation rate of indoor air which leads to an increased accumulation of radon indoors. Having in mind that a dose from an exposure to inhaled radon and its progenies can be higher than a dose received from radium in building materials, it is suggested that radon exhalation measurements should receive due attention. In this contribution, the authors compare results gathered using a few methods for radon exhalation measurement and discuss its merits and demerits.
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Ljiljana Gulan, Lidija Spasović

Pages: 137-140

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.28

This paper presents the results of ambient dose rate measurements conducted in the air of Berane town, Republic of Montenegro. Measurements were performed by Geiger-Müller counter - Radex RD1503+, in the middle of October 2015. An average daily value of 114.8 nSv/h of ambient dose equivalent rate was obtained, spanning from 50-160 nSv/h in the morning and 70-177 nSv/h in the evening. Analysis of the impact of spatial variations on gamma radiation levels shows a very weak correlation between indoor ambient dose rate and outdoor ambient dose rate measured either in the morning (r = 0.09) or in the evening (r = 0.19). Building materials or stuff in buildings do not contribute additionally to ambient dose rates. Due to the lack of published data of dose rates, these results are the first measurements of radiation levels in Berane town.
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  13. М. В. Жуковский, В. Б. Гурвич, И. В. Ярмошенко, Радоновая безопасность зданий, Екатеринбург, Россия: УрО РАН, 2000. (M. V. Zhukovsky, V. B. Gurvich, I. V. Yarmoshenko, Radon Building Safety, Yekaterinburg, Russia: UB RAS, 2000.)


A. S. Silva, M. L. Dinis

Pages: 141-148

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.29

The aim of this work was to measure the concentration of the indoor radon in 16 Portuguese thermal spas (38% of the thermal spas in Portugal) and assess its variability within each establishment as well as its contribution to the effective dose. The measurements were performed with CR-39 passive detectors placed at different workplaces within each thermal spa, for an average period of 42 days, in different seasons of the year. The indoor radon concentrations ranged from 68 to 4335 Bq/m3 with a geometric mean of 437 Bq/m3 and an arithmetic mean of 702 Bq/m3. Geological factors that can lead to such behaviour are discussed. The results showed that the EU reference level of 300 Bq/m3 (Directive 2013/59/EURATOM) was exceeded in several cases. No significant differences were observed among measurements taken during different seasons of the year, however, large differences of radon concentrations in different rooms of the same thermal establishment were noted as well as significant difference when comparing to other thermal establishments. The effective dose resulting from the inhalation of radon ranged between 2 and 32 mSv/y. In 43% of the thermal spas, the effective dose is likely to be higher than 6 mSv/y, which means that the exposure should be managed as a “planned exposure situation” according to the European Directive 2013/59/EURATOM. Also, in 19% of the cases, the annual effective dose exceeds 20 mSv/y, and in these cases, monitoring and radiological protection is required as laid down in the European Directive 2013/59/EURATOM.
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Radiation Detectors


Atanas Tanushevski, Dragan Sokolovski

Pages: 149-154

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.30

Thin films of CdTe have been obtained by electrodeposition in presence of tartaric acid on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates, under constant voltage of 1.40 V. In order to determine the deposition parameters of CdTe, cyclic voltammetry has been performed. The films were annealed at Т= 200 oС, Т= 300 oС, Т= 400 oС and Т= 450 oС, in air atmosphere. The X-ray diffractograms show that the films obtained at 90 oC are nanocrystal with cubic structure and with grain size of 6 nm. The thermal treatment of CdTe films contributes to grain growth and obtaining polycrystalline films. Atomic Force Microscope shows that the films are smooth and uniform with columnar grains. The optical properties of the CdTe films have been investigated by measurements of wavelength-dependent transmission. The optical band gap of as-deposited films is 1.48 eV and is decreasing up to 1.45 eV, for films annealed at temperature of 300 оС, and increasing again at temperature of 450 оС. Lastly, SnO2-CdS-CdTe-electrolyte-graphite type photoelectrochemical solar cells have been made, using the 0.1 М NaOH-Na2Sx electrolyte. From the measured current-voltage characteristics, open circuit voltage of Voc= 500 mV and short circuit current of Isc= 1.2 mA/cm2 have been determined.
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Radiation Effects


Mariia Shilina, Zoya Kovaleva, Nikolay Nikolsky, Tatiana Grinchuk

Pages: 155-158

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.31

The aim of this study was the cytogenetic assay of endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSC) in vitro after exposure to sublethal dose of X-rays and sublethal heat shock (HS). For the analysis of chromosomes we used the G-banding technique. We showed that both types of stress caused similar changes in eMSC karyotype structure. In both cases 80% of the cell population had karyotype abnormalities. The main types of rearrangements were aneuploidy and chromosomal breaks. Chromosomes 1 and 4 were involved in breaks more often than other chromosomes. The number of chromosomes involved in the restructuring as a result of HS was more than after X-rays. eMSC survived stress entered the replicative senescence in different time: at the 4th passage after X-rays and 20th passage after heat shock.
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P. K. Skorobogatov, G. G. Davydov, A. A. Pechenkin, D. V. Boychenko

Pages: 159-162

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.32

The work is devoted to the research of the single and multiple latch-up impact on the subsequent behavior of electrical parameters and operability of modern integrated circuits. The impact of interrupted SEL amount on subsequent behavior of IC is introduced. An approach to the estimation of the maximum time in the latch-up state is formulated to ensure IC’s fault-free operation after SEL.
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Medical Physics


Marija Ž. Jeremić, Milovan Matović, Suzana Pantović, Dragoslav Nikezić, Goran Ristić, Dragana Krstić

Pages: 163-166

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.33

Biokinetic of 90Y-DOTATOC in human body during treatment of neuroendocrine and medullary thyroid tumors is described in this work. For this purpose, the human body may be represented by 4 compartments: blood, kidneys, urinary bladder and tumor. System of differential equations was developed a whose solution is presented in this paper. The aim is the determination of transfer coefficients between individual compartments for a better estimation of the dose in the tumor and other organs of the human body. A computer program is written in standard Fortran90 programming language.
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S. P. Odarchenko, M. B. Gumeniuk, K. V. Gumeniuk, O. V. Zinvaliuk, D. S. Sinchuk

Pages: 167-172

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.34

Nowadays only several medical centers of Ukraine are equipped with special linear accelerators for treating patients using Image-Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) and Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT), apart from 3DCRT methods. Sequential (SEQ) and Simultaneous Integrated Boost (SIB) are common IMRT techniques for whole brain irradiation and metastasis treatment using TomoTherapy system TomoHD. The radiotherapy system, mentioned above, is innovation for oncological diseases treatment in Ukraine as well as in post Soviet Union countries in general. Thus, one of main goals of the work is to define the quality of different therapeutic plans, to identify and describe the main features of treatment plans preparation and creating and to describe some specific approaches for SIB and SEQ techniques in planning of patients with brain tumors using the TomoTherapy Planning System.
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S. P. Odarchenko, K. V. Gumeniuk, M. B. Gumeniuk, O. V. Zinvaliuk, D. S. Synchuk

Pages: 173-177

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.35

The work presents first results of radiation therapy with using Tomotherapy TomoHD. For the high quality of patients’ treatment, modern methods of radiotherapy, such as IGRT, IMRT and adaptive radiotherapy are used. Regular performing of machine quality assurance procedures are done according to the local program of QA. A good stability of different machine parameters provides a high quality of patients’ treatment. After the end of the treatment, the partial resorption of targeted lesions and the absence or minimization of early reactions are observed. Tomotherapy provides a fundamentally new and effective treatment for all cancer locations.
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E. Petrova

Pages: 178-180

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.36

The aim of the study is to analyze the relationship between the decreases of FEF50% - on the one hand, and radiologically verified compensatory lung emphysema among workers, exposed to mineral dust at the work place - on the other. A case control study among 480 quartz-exposed underground miners, 120 asbestos-exposed workers, and 121 individuals without dust exposure was performed. The average age of the examined workers was 42.82 years, and the average duration of the dust exposure was 14.01 years. A clinical examination, as well as a chest radiography (by ILO’80), and spyrometry of all persons were done. We used SPSS software and one-way ANOVA. There was a significant decrease of the mean of FEF50% in cases with lung emphysema, accounted on the chest radiography (by ILO’80). We assume that the compensatory emphysema and reduction of FEF50% is associated with the formation of initial interstitial pulmonary fibrosis among workers exposed to mineral dust over a long period and in patients with pneumoconiosis. Conclusion 1. The decrease of FEF50% is related to radiologically established compensatory lung emphysema. 2. The investigation of FEF50%, combined with chest X-ray, is an appropriate constellation for periodical preventive medical check ups and assessment of health status for workers exposed to mineral dust.
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L.I. Korytova, E.A.Maslyukova, A.V. Bondarenko, O.V.Korytov, E.M.Muravnik

Pages: 181-184

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.37

Lowest dose detection per ipsilateral lung versus various dosimetric irradiation plans for the left mammary gland is investigated. The study involves dosimetric radiotherapeutic (RT) plans of 20 female patients with left BC (breast cancer). Pre-irradiation preparation included 3 sessions of CT scan: patient in standard dorsal position with tidal respiration (STR), in dorsal position with controlled breathhold on top inspiration (DBH) and in prone position with tidal respiration (PTR). Three CT-sessions were followed by 3D-plan dosimetric calculations. Dose-volumetric measures for organs at risk (OAR) were assessed for every irradiation option. Contoured left lung volume in all studied variants varied within 757.1 cm3 – 2923.8 cm3, mean volume 1751.6 cm3. The best values, such as V25lung (when α/β=3.1) and V28lung (when α/β=9), average doses per ipsilateral lung were received using the PTR method (V25lung (α/β=3.1) – 10.19%, V28lung (α/β=9) – 9.19%; Dmean lung 7.42 Gy) versus the STR method (V25lung (α/β=3.1) – 20.72%, V28lung (α/β=9) – 19.6%; D mean 10.42 Gy) and DBH-position (V25lung (α/β=3.1) – 20.17%, V28lung (α/β=9) – 19.01%; Dmean lung 10.11 Gy) included in MG volume and axillary LN with V25lung (α/β=3.1) - Р=0.00000**, V28lung (α/β=9) – Р=0.00000**; D mean - p=0.00002**. No preferences in dosimetry were detected for the addition of supraclavicular and infraclavicular lymph nodes (LN) in irradiation volume using STR and DBH methods: DBH (V25lung (α/β=3.1) – 21.49%, V28lung (α/β=9) – 20.17%; Dmean lung 10.85 Gy) versus STR method (V25lung (α/β=3.1) – 23.07%, V28lung (α/β=9) – 21.64%; Dmean lung 11.72 Gy). V25lung (α/β=3.1) - р=0.438, V28lung (α/β=9) – р=0.461; Dmean lung р=0.2964. Based on our investigation, the lowest doses per ipsilateral lung were received in prone position with tidal respiration including axillary lymph nodes (LN) in MG volume. These findings were associated with the results of few international studies. No statistically significant difference in left lung radiation exposure was detected during the comparison of STR and DBH methods with the additional irradiation of supraclavicular and infraclavicular LN.

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Radiation Oncology


Mehmet Ertuğrul Ertürk, Cemil Kocar, Salih Gürdall, Mehmet Tombakoğlu

Pages: 186-190

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.38

Fast and accurate dose computation is an important requirement for algorithms that are often used in optimization schemes. Decreasing the number of variables and parameters and the amount of tabulated data can reduce computation time. Flattening Filter-Free (FFF) beams provide reduced profile shape variations with depth relative to flattened beams. Therefore, the pencil beam kernel of a FFF beam must exhibit the reduced variation with depth when compared to the kernel of flattened beams. In this paper, a kernel with a minimal number of parameters is derived for the FFF beams. Moreover, some of the parameters are defined as depth independent. A finite-size pencil beam dose calculation model was used for kernel generation. The grid size for the dose calculation was set to 2.5 mm. During the kernel generation, the parameters (pre-exponential constants and exponential constants) of the kernel were determined in such a way that the difference between the computed and measured profiles is minimized by the global gamma analysis technique. The criteria for this technique were 1 % dose difference at distance of 1 mm with a 10 % threshold. Profiles for each field (5 x 5 cm2, 10 x 10 cm2, and 20 x 20 cm2) at five standard depths (dmax, 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm), a total of 15 profiles, were used to generate the kernels. The multi-objective, non-derivative, unconstrained, non-linear optimization method in the programming package MATLAB (Mathworks, Natick, MA) optimization toolbox was used to generate kernel parameters. Commissioning of the model was performed for the static fields and the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields. In static fields and dynamic IMRT fields, more than 95 % of data points satisfied the criteria defined in the global gamma analysis with 3 % and 3 mm. There was a good agreement between modelled and measured data in both cases. It is demonstrated that the pencil beam model developed in this study could be used for FFF x-ray beams. Pencil beam kernel parameters do not need to be defined at each depth.
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Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations


Lucian Dimitrievici, Daniel-Eduard Constantin, Adrian Rosu, Luminita Moraru

Pages: 191-194

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.39

In this work, we present the evolution of the atmospheric ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over the worldwide during 2005 - 2016. For this purpose, nine important locations over the globe were selected: Bucharest (44.43°N, 26.10°E), Bremen (53.08°N, 8.8°E), Athena (23.73°E, 37.98°N), Toronto (79.39°W, 43.66°N), St. Petersburg (30.702°E, 59.953°N), Cairo (31.28°E, 30.08°N), Mexico City (99.18°W, 19.33°N), Nairobi (36.81°E, 1.28°S), and New Delhi (77.21°E, 28.65°N). The O3 and NO2 remote sensing observations were provided by the space UV-VIs instrument OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) onboard the AURA satellite. Data regarding O3 and NO2 were obtained from the Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS) database. Also, correlations between NO2 and O3 columns are presented in this work.
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Bulent Yaniktepe, Osman Kara, Coskun Ozalp

Pages: 195-197

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.40

Nowadays, the use of solar radiation is very important for some applications. Knowledge of global solar radiation distribution is needed for the design of solar energy systems of these applications. Many parameters affect the production of the solar energy and conversion efficiencies and location conditions of PV panels. One of the most vital parameters is the number of solar radiation values. The main objective of this study is to determine the predicting solar radiation by using meteorological measurements. In this study, two empirical models (linear and second-order polynomial equation) are analyzed according to correlation coefficients for a month. For the global solar radiation on horizontal surface in Osmaniye and a new quadratic model has been developed for Osmaniye.
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Medical Imaging


Gordana Laštovička-Medin

Pages: 198-206

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.41

More than five decades have passed since the hypothesis of thermography in breast imaging was proposed. During this time, thermography has gone from a legitimate, promising technology to one relegated to the shadows outside conventional medicine. Thermal imaging in clinical trials is still controversial issue. However even those who discard the method due to insufficient reliability of data do not validate their arguments by clear understanding of the reasons behind the inaccuracy. While thermography is not well evidenced for use as a screening tool, its use as an adjunctive imaging procedure alongside mammography should be considered, particularly for those with dense breast tissue. It is certain that images captured by digital infrared thermal imaging support the effective recognition of irregular body patterns and that they can be used as indicators of any anomaly over the time period by spotting a trend of changes in the temperature. But data has to be not only interpreted accurately but also taken carefully and the effect of surrounding environment has to be kept minimal. The identified localized patterns have to be accurately assigned to a certain anomaly in order to be treated as diagnostic method, and the evaluation method as well as interpretation have to be standardized, and method replicable. Moreover, validation of protocols, equipment, and analytical techniques is needed to be placed in the context of large, randomized trials before its use can be considered truly evidence-based. Accurate interpretation of thermal data is largely dependent upon an experienced, knowledgeable operator who understands infrared theory and heat transfer concepts, basic anatomy and physiology, and infrared equipment operation and importantly, limitations too. In this paper we integrate theory behind thermal imaging, potential of thermal imaging in clinical research and general uncertainties and misinterpretations that lead to reduced accuracy of data interpretation and feasibility of the method.
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Luminita Moraru, Lucian Traian Dimitrievici, Antoaneta Ene, Simona Moldovanu

Pages: 207-211

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.42

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the degree of diffusion weighting of the sequence, expressed as the b-factor, are used to investigate the effect of the magnetic field gradients on the integrity of white matter in patients with temporal intracerebral hemorrhage. The healthy patients are the gold standard. The present study investigated the changes of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in a brain hemisphere approach to understand the effect of magnetic field gradients on the brain hemorrhage investigation. The artifacts induced by diffusion gradients in diffusion tensor imaging affect the accuracy of the investigation, and in order to achieve the optimal image quality, strong magnetic field gradients are recommended. The artifact effect of higher magnetic field gradients is analyzed by means of the root-mean-square FA and MD difference between left and right brain hemispheres.
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Oleg Slesarev, Ivan Bayricov, Dmitry Trunin, S. Abul'khanov, N. Kazanskiy

Pages: 212-216

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.43

The objective of this study was an analysis of the patient complaints of a structure and the nature of the formation of clinical groups for the study of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). We examined 28 men and 148 women with TMD. We analyzed 604 tomographic images. Statistical processing included cross tables and chi-square analysis. Twenty-eight percent of the study population was followed up in a general clinical network, presenting with facial pain. Dental clinics established primary clinical diagnoses: arthrosis and arthritis (71%), dislocation or subluxation of the temporomandibular joint head (16.5%), and/or temporomandibular joint dysfunction (12.5%). X-rays showed the combination of functional disorders (75%) and degenerative dystrophic changes (67%) of the temporomandibular joint; the x-ray norm was observed in 9% of cases. By TMJ visualization, we established the clinical features of females with TMD, depending on the reproductive stage. For patients in puberty, joint mobility was limited (44.4%, p = 0.045) compared with head dislocation, and arthritis (p = 0.024) was predominant. For patients in the early reproductive stage, head subluxation (48.5%, p < 0.010) was found in all detected pathologies except deforming arthrosis. For patients in the late reproductive stage and perimenopause, half of the examined patients had deforming arthrosis (52.8% in the late reproductive stage, p < 0.01, for all detected pathologies, except for limited joint mobility; 50% in perimenopause, p < 0.05, with radiologic norms, dislocation of the head, and arthritis). In postmenopausal women, arthritis and sclerotic arthrosis were noted (30.8% and 27.8%, respectively). Structure of the patient complaints and the nature of the formation of clinical groups of patients with TMD were determined by the place of primary treatment, specialization of the institution, and the level of techniques of primary diagnosis of TMD. This affected the patients' quality of treatment and is a cause of chronic (58%) TMD.
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D. Üstündağ

Pages: 217-221

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.44

We study here one of the imaging technique, used in nuclear medicine, called a Positron Emission Tomographic (PET) imaging that provides information about many biological processes that are essential to the functioning of the organ that is being visualized. Our emphasis is given to applications of the maximum entropy image reconstruction method called “Cambridge MaxEnt Package” (CMEP) for recovering images of the human brain from data obtained by PET camera. Computer simulations demonstrate its usefulness.
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Nina Bagdasaryan, Valery Erichev, Tatyana Aksyonova, Marina Mitropanova, Yevgeniya Ovcharenko

Pages: 222-224

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.45

Method of complex therapy of patients with chronic catarrhal gingivitis has been developed, it includes applications with trypsin in 1% sodium bicarbonate solution and further teeth surface treating with ultrasonic skyler, as well as course of Kudesan. Comparative clinical monitoring of 40 patients with chronic catarrhal gingivitis treated with the offered method has been performed. 15 patients were treated in compliance with conventional therapeutic regimen. The application of the described method of multimodality treatment allows to achieve significant reduction of plaque index (PI, API), improvement of oral hygiene and to stop inflammatory process in paradontium in 1 – 2 weeks since the treatment beginning, the effect of which continues through the long term, up to 12 months compared with the control set.
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Yevgeniya Ovcharenko, Valeriy Erichev, Tatyana Aksenova, Nina Bagdasaryan

Pages: 225-227

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.46

The research objective consisted in studying the local factors of protection of an oral cavity on the basis of balance definition between proinflammatory (INf - γ, TNF - α, IL-8) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4) cytokines with the degree of colonization of Candida in patients with chronic generalized parodontitis. On the basis of the results of this study, it has been established that patients with chronic parodontitis who have a mild and moderate severity level of disease, a high degree colonization of periodontal pockets with Candida tropicalis correlates with a substantial increase in proinflammatory cytokines (TNF - α, IL-8), concentration fall of INF - γ and the increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines of IL-4 level.
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Ilma Robo, Saimir Heta, Panajot Papa, Edlira Sadiku, Nevila Alliu

Pages: 228-230

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.47

The aim is to emphasize the notions: determinant indicator and predictor of risk factors for periodontal pathologies, and to show the interconnection logic, analyzing the effects of one of the risk factors, in this case of smoking, mainly on the amount of gingival fluid. For achieving this, measurements were carried out, in mm of the wet amount of adsorbent placed in sulcus, before and 30 minutes after smoking; held in sulcus, for 3 minutes. This procedure was repeated several times. In the end, we organized the summary table, to show the interconnection of concepts about periodontal risk. What represents the human body, consisting at the host which is subjected to the action of oral bacterial flora and this interaction extends in time, where the personal diet of the patient operates as mechanical element that clean the surfaces of the tooth. It is noted that the change in wetting of the adsorbent was only 1 or 0.5 millimeters, within 3 minutes time that was held inside the sulcus. Small changes, but in total for the whole mouth, these are with great action for the oral hygiene. Once this 0.5 mm of humidity produced in 6 different points, around the tooth, and for 32 teeth simultaneously, the cleaning action of gingival fluid is more effective. Smoking increases the amount of crevicular fluid, but also promotes the destruction of the bone, whose clinical signs to the naked eyes, are more than visible.
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Milica Stanković, Jelena Živković, Vanja Tadić, Ivana Arsić

Pages: 231-236

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.48

Solar radiation has harmful effects on exposed skin, producing accelerated aging processes (wrinkles, dryness, telangiectasia, dyspigmentations). Also, there is an increased ROS generation in skin exposed to the UV-A and UV-B radiation. This results in oxidative stress, photodamage of skin macromolecules and photocarcinogenesis processes. In order to prevent this, botanical extracts with antioxidant properties can be used in anti-photoaging preparations, as a substitute for traditional sunscreen products. Plant extracts, rich in natural polyphenols, exert fewer sensitization effects on skin and are very effective against oxidative damaging caused by UV radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative activity of different elder (Sambucus nigra L.) fruit extracts. Active components of S. nigra, such as polyphenols, have an important biological activity. Fruit extracts were obtained by the maceration method using four different solvents (methanol - ME, propylene glycol 45% v/v - PE, ethanol 70% v/v - EE and distilled water - WE). To study antioxidant activity we used different in vitro assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching assay. The concentrations at which 50% of the DPPH radicals were scavenged (IC50) were 3.54, 3.94 and 12.07 mg/ml for the samples EE, ME and PE, respectively. The sample WE showed a stronger scavenging activity (IC50 value was 2.62 mg/ml). FRAP values were 242.29 and 686.43 μmol Fe2+/g of dry extract for PE and ME samples, respectively. Higher values were obtained using the EE and WE samples, 793.54 and 934.81 μmol Fe2+/g of dry extract, respectively. Sample EE was the most active in the β-carotene bleaching assay (IC50 was 0.235±0.004 mg/ml). Extracts WE and PE showed similar, but lower percentage of inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. FRAP assay showed a significant (p < 0.05) negative correlation (r = - 0.975) with radical scavenging capacity (IC50 values).The extract WE (distilled water was used as a solvent) exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity and had the highest ferric reducing potential.
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Vesna Stojiljković , Ljubica Gavrilović, Snežana Pejić, Ana Todorović, Nataša Popović, Ivan Pavlović, Snežana B. Pajović

Pages: 237-242

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.49

Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder provoked by wheat gluten and related proteins from other grains. The only treatment for the patients is a lifelong gluten free diet (GFD). Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CD. The aim of this study was to examine the modulation of the biochemical response to oxidative stress in children affected by CD. Study involved peripheral blood samples and small intestinal biopsies from 69 children diagnosed with CD. According to the histological findings, patients were divided into following groups: Marsh 0: normal mucosa with no signs of inflammation (n=31); Marsh 1: mucosa was characterized by intraepithelial lymphocytosis (n=5); Marsh 2: intraepithelial lymphocytosis was accompanied by crypt hyperplasia (n=4); Marsh 3a: mucosa showed partial villous atrophy (n=20); Marsh 3b: subtotal villous atrophy was present (n=9). For the statistical purposes groups Marsh 1 and Marsh 2 were treated as one (Marsh 1+2, n=9). The activities and protein levels of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and manganese SOD (MnSOD), as well as the concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) were determined in intestinal biopsies, while in the peripheral blood, MnSOD activity was not measured, due to the methodological obstacles. CuZnSOD activity in the blood varied significantly between the analyzed groups. Marsh 3a and Marsh 3b had increased CuZnSOD activity comparing to the Marsh 0 (P < 0.05). LOOH concentration also varied significantly. LOOH level was higher in the blood of Marsh 3a (P < 0.001) and Marsh 3b (P < 0.05), than in Marsh 0. In the biopsy samples, MnSOD activity and LOOH concentration showed significant differences between the groups, while no significant difference was found for CuZnSOD activity. In comparison to Marsh 0, MnSOD activity was significantly elevated in Marsh 3a (P < 0.01). Significant increase in LOOH concentration was found in Marsh 3a (P < 0.001) and Marsh 3b (P < 0.01), comparing to Marsh 0. In addition, Marsh 3a group had higher LOOH concentration than Marsh 1+2. Relative MnSOD and CuZnSOD protein level in peripheral blood and intestinal mucosa did not vary significantly between the analyzed groups. Positive correlations were found between the severity of mucosal lesion and CuZnSOD activity (P < 0.001), as well as LOOH concentration (P < 0.001) in peripheral blood. Similar correlations were found also in intestinal mucosa: MnSOD: P < 0.05; CuZnSOD: P < 0.05; LOOH: P < 0.001. Our results show that oxidant/antioxidant balance is disturbed in CD patients with mucosal lesions. An increase in SOD activity as a consequence of oxidant pressure, is not enough to maintain the normal level of free radicals, which leads to enhanced lipid peroxidation. These processes persist even in some patients on a long-term GFD.
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Mihai Surcel, Didi Surcel, Sebastian Toader, Mioara Butan

Pages: 243-248

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.50

The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism by which EMF therapy can interfere with the modified immune and oxidative reactions by the experimental approach on the lab animals. In vivo and vitro experiment was carried out on 60 Wistar rats that were divided in 4 groups as following: 1. Control-group tested on the 10th day; 2.ELF-EMF-exposed group tested on the 10th day; 3. Group that received intradermic Staphylococcus aureus culture (SA) and was tested on the 10th day; 4. Group that received intradermic SA and was treated with ELF- EMF and was tested after 10 days. The rats were exposed to 50 Hz, 1 mT. Splenic lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages for the cellular cultures were harvested. The following parameters were assessed: a) 3HTdR incorporation test; b) Macrophage inhibition factor (MIF) assay; c)Inteleukine-1 (IL-1)-assay; d) Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)- assay; e) Chemiluminescence assay; f) Phagocytosis assay. The 3HTdR incorporation assay and assays for cytokine activity and phagocytosis indicate a partial reversal of the values of the results obtained in the ELF + EMF group. Our experiment reveals that the EMF interferes with the immune and oxidative systems, becomes chronic and plays a key role in the development of serious diseases. The EMF-therapy can be beneficial in reducing the inflammation by interfering with the inflammatory molecules and surface receptors.
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N. E. Kushlinskii, E. S. Gershtein, Yu. S. Timofeev, E. A. Korotkova, I. V. Babkina, O. I. Kostyleva, Yu. N. Solovyev

Pages: 249-254

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.51

RANK/RANKL/OPG system (the key regulator of bone homeostasis) component levels were measured in blood serum of 199 patients with primary bone tumors and tumor-like lesions: 121 with bone sarcomas (53 osteosarcoma, 46 chondrosarcoma, 12 chordoma, 8 Ewing sarcoma), 32 with borderline giant cell bone tumor (GCBT), 46 with benign bone neoplasms; 131 persons comprised the control group. OPG, sRANKL, sRANK, IL-6, 8, 16 serum levels were measured by standard ELISA kits. Giant-cell bone tumor (GCBT) manifesting high osteoclastogenic and osteolytic activities was characterized by high serum content of all three components studied and the highest sRANKL/OPG ratio. The group of patients with various benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions displayed similar to GCBT, but lower indices. Malignant bone tumor patients could be divided into 2 subgroups with opposite characteristics: osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma patients demonstrated low sRANK and high sRANKL levels, while chondrosarcoma and chordoma patients, on the contrary - high sRANK and low sRANKL levels. The highest IL-6 levels were revealed in GCBT patients, while serum IL-8 and IL-16 did not differ between groups. Thus, disturbances in osteolysis activators and inhibitors balance in blood serum of primary bone tumor patients were revealed. Their extent depended on neoplasm character (malignant, borderline, or benign) and histological structure of malignant sarcomas. Most prominent changes were found in GCBT characterized by active bone destruction and an accepted target of anti-RANKL antibody denosumab treatment. Hence, the proteins studied can be regarded as promising serologic markers and therapeutic targets in this rare disease.
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Nataša Popović, Snežana B. Pajović, Vesna Stojiljković, Ana Todorović, Snežana Pejić, Ivan Pavlović, Ljubica Gavrilović

Pages: 255-259

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.52

Chronic stress induces over-activation and dysfunction of stress-activated systems, resulting in further brain damage and depressive-like behavior. Depression is a potentially life-threatening disorder that affects people and, therefore, it is one of the most important public health problems. This study examined the effects of chronic restraint stress (CRS: 2 hours × 14 days) on the anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in rats, as well as on the possible changes in the concentrations of dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. We observed a decrease in the number of entries into open arms and time spent in open arms during the elevated plus-maze test (anxiety-like behavior), as well as the increased immobility during the forced swimming test (depression-like behavior). In addition, we found that CRS increases concentration of NA and decreases concentration of DA in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Also, we recorded a significant correlation between the animal behavior and levels of neurotransmitters in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in stress conditions provoked by CRS. The results presented here suggest that there is a relationship between the animal behavior and levels of neurotransmitters in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in stress conditions provoked by CRS, which may be important in the research of numerous psychiatric diseases caused by chronic stress.
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Yu. P. Chukova

Pages: 260-264

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.53

One of fundamental laws of physics is the law of efficiency of conversion of one kind of energy into another which was formulated in second half of the 20-th century for whole region of electromagnetic radiation. On the basis of this law for weak influences (isothermal processes) whole region of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation breaks up on two parts strictly corresponding to the W.Wien region and the Rayleigh-Jeans region, in which efficiency laws are essentially various. Gamma radiation is the most high-energy part of electromagnetic radiation. It is the top frequency boundary for the W. Wien region. Efficiency of conversion of energy for different frequencies of the W. Wien region in approach of reversible process has been considered. Influence of irreversibility on conversion of energy in system for a value of efficiency has been shown. Features of laws of efficiency of conversion for endergonic and exergonic processes are considered.
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N. V. Kamanina, S. V. Likhomanova, А. А. Kamanin

Pages: 265-268

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.54

The physical phenomena resulting from forces exerted on a liquid-crystal mesophase on the account of the electric, magnetic, thermal fields and deformation are due to the weak intermolecular interaction of the structural elements of liquid-crystal media. In order to take an advantage of the factors, such as the presence of weak dispersion forces between the molecules of liquid crystals and the high orienting ability, the liquid-crystal anisotropic medium has been considered for visualizing, fixing, and orienting human red blood cells and DNA. The feedback mechanism of the liquid crystal self-organization has been discussed, due to the interaction with erythrocytes; moreover, the spectral features of the LC with DNA have been shown. In the present paper, the special accent will be on the orientation of these types of the bio-objects under the conditions in which the interface between solid and liquid crystal mesophase is modified via laser oriented deposition technique, as well as by using the surface electromagnetic waves treatment. It provokes the best visualization and orientation of the bio-objects in the anisotropic liquid crystal media when the direct orienting polymer coatings have been removed.
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Dora Krezhova, Kalinka Velichkova, Nikolai Petrov, Svetla Maneva

Pages: 269-275

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.55

Contemporary remote sensing techniques have acquired new and more advanced applications in environmental and ecological researches. Hyperspectral remote sensing data provide significant advancement in understanding the subtle changes in biophysical and biochemical parameters of the plants and their responses to adverse environmental conditions. In this study, a remote sensing method based on hyperspectral measurements of leaf reflectance was used to extract information on the effect of biotic stress (two viral infections) on young potato plants. The reflectance data were collected by means of a portable fiber-optics spectrometer in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges (400 –1100 nm). To translate the hyperspectral data into information about plant biophysical and biochemical variables, an empirical-statistical approach was applied based on Student’s t-test, first derivative, and serological analyses. The changes in some important biophysical parameters such as color and spectral signature of plants, chlorophyll absorption characteristics, moisture content, etc., were analyzed. The results showed that the variations in the chlorophyll content, leaf structure, and water content dominate in the reflectance variance in the green, red, and near-infrared spectral ranges. Comparative analysis was performed between the results from the leaf spectral reflectance and serological test (DAS-ELISA) for the presence and degree of the viral infections.
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Kalinka Velichkova, Dora Krezhova

Pages: 276-282

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.56

Estimation and monitoring of plant health and influence of the environment are important components of the climate change researches. Recent hyperspectral remote sensing technologies, based on measurements of leaf reflectance in the visible and near infrared spectral ranges, allow detecting subtle absorption features in foliar spectra and to study correlations of these features linked to plant biophysical variables. The purpose of this study is to explore the sensitivity of several narrowband vegetation indices (VIs) when used to estimate the effect of a biotic stress (viral infection) on the biophysical parameters and physiological state of young potato plants. Two groups of plants were investigated – healthy and infected with Potato Virus Y (PVY). Hyperspectral reflectance data were collected by means of a portable fiber-optics spectrometer in the spectral range 400-1100 nm with a spectral resolution of 1.5 nm. The VIs – Normalized Difference VI (NDVI), modified Normalized Difference VI (mNDVI), Simple Ratio (SR); Chlorophyll Absorption Ratio Index (CARI), Modified CARI (MCARI), Chlorophyll Indices (ChIgreen and ChIred edge); Pigment index (PI), Disease index (fD) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) were evaluated for their potential to detect changes in physiological state and biochemical content of the infected plants. Three VIs appeared to be most sensitive – CARI, ChIgreen, and MCARI, the latter one has shown about two time better sensitivity than the others.
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Ana J. Šetrajčić-Tomić, Ljubiša D. Džambas, Jovan P. Šetrajčić, Matilda Vojnović, Igor J. Šetrajčić

Pages: 283-289

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.57

The subject of the research in this paper includes theoretical investigation of nanomaterials modeling in the field of pharmaceutical technology for biomedical application. This includes a very precise encapsulated drug delivery, on exactly defined place in the human tissue or organ and a disintegration of capsule – drug carrier, so that the medicament can start producing its effect. The goal of multidisciplinary researches with biocompatible molecular nanomaterials is to find the parameters and the possibilities to construct boundary surfaces that will, in interaction with biological environment, create such properties of nanolayers that are convenient for use for layers of drug carrier capsules, biochips and biomarkers. These layers should demonstrate controlled disintegration of structure, better dielectric properties, discrete luminescence and appropriate bioporosity as all these are the requirements of contemporary nanomedicine. The main advantage of the theoretical approach is the essential knowledge of the mechanisms that allow us to comprehend the experimental conditions that we have to fulfill to be able to get the desired results. The results achieved up to now by our research group in the application of the Green's function method on flat ultrathin films are promising for applications in the frame of optical core-shell models. This paper presents the review of our current achievement in the field of theoretical physics of exciton ultrathin films and possible ways to materialize the same in the field of nanopharmacy.
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Siniša M. Vučenović, Jovan P. Šetrajčić, Matilda Vojnović, Ana J. Šetrajčić-Tomić, Ljubiša D.Džambas

Pages: 290-295

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.58

We performed a study to investigate whether some physiological processes are caused by electrical current when passing through the tissues and organs. The basic idea of diathermia, medical treatment and therapy with alternating high frequency electric current, is to use the transformation of electric power into heat when the current goes through the tissue and internal biological environment. The important fact in this process is to avoid the massive displacement of ions, which could be potentially destructing side effect. Advantage and importance of using the alternate current (with frequency ~1 MHz) over the direct current is explained, as well as the fact that this effect was spotted almost simultaneously by Nikola Tesla and Jaques d’Arsonval, at the end of 19th century. This paper also explains later the cooperation between two scientists and the basic principles of diathermy – heating effect with high frequency alternate current.
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Other topics


Mirjana S. Jankulovska, Vesna Dimova, Ilinka Spirevska

Pages: 296-299

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.59

UV spectroscopic methods were used in order to determine dissociation constants of some aromatic hydrazones. The acid-base properties of investigated hydrazones were followed in sodium hydroxide media at constant ionic strength of 0.5 mol/dm3 adjusted with sodium perchlorate. Absorption band with maximum at 330 nm was noticed in neutral media. A batochromic shift of this band was observed in basic media, probably due to dissociation process. Dissociation process took place in one step for four investigated hydrazones and in two steps for hydrazone with phenol group in its molecule. The absorbance data from the UV spectra were used for calculation of dissociation constants. The obtained pKHA values were between 2.11 and 2.62 which suggested that the influence of the substituents is not significant. At the same time, pKHA values were determined graphically from the intercept of the dependence of logI on pH. There are no important differences between calculated and graphically determined dissociation constant values.
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Koci Doraci, Alfred Hasanaj

Pages: 300-303

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.60

This paper’s objective is to contribute to the optimization of the problem of guiding forces during the movement of a railway vehicle. The paper proposes an innovative solution as compared to classical authors’ suggestions, which are limited to a small number of alternatives. The methodology follows an experimental approach. A two-stage experiment is performed where experimental conditions are modeled after profiles designed following a curved path with a radius of 500 m (by definition classified as tight curve). Standard profiles were used in the first experimental stage used, while curvilinear profiles were exploited the second experimental stage. After the experiment was conducted, data concerning (1) displacement (2) moments of force and (3) guiding forces of wheel-rail contact were analyzed and compared for both stages: both standard profiles and curvilinear profiles. After considering the experimental results, the major conclusions of the paper are: (1) in the case of curvilinear profiles, small movements of the vehicle lead to a change in the size of the wheel displacement smaller than the corresponding change in standard profiles; (2) moments of force are greater in the case of standard profiles compared to curvilinear ones; and (3) curvilinear profiles enable movement without many contact points with the wheel, friction forces exert their action in longitudinal direction, thus causing a smaller value of guiding forces.
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  5. J. Wang, S. Chen, X. Li, Y. Wu, “Optimal rail profile design for a curved segment of a heavy haul railway using a response surface approach,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part F: J. Rail and Rapid Transit, vol. 230, no. 6, pp. 1496 – 1508, Aug. 2016.
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  6. W. Zhai, J. Gao, P. Liu, K. Wang, “Reducing rail side wear on heavy-haul railway curves based on wheel-rail dynamic interaction,” Int. J. Vehicle Mech. Mobility, vol. 52, no. suppl. 1, pp. 440 – 454, May 2014.
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Koci Doraci, Alfred Hasanaj

Pages: 304-307

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.61

Predicting, calculating and minimizing rail profile-wheel wear is still an important inquiry, despite the evolution in its formulation. This paper will contribute to solving the wear prediction problem, frameworked by the guidelines given below: (a) Wear minimization in terms of different curve radiuses and (2) Wear minimization in terms of different wheel-rail profile combinations. The objectives of the paper are: (1) To maximize prediction accuracy of the wear index (a) in terms of the overall wear index, (b) in terms of wheel-rail combinations and (c) in terms of curve radius; (2) To optimize wheel-rail profile combinations in terms of wear indices for different curve radius scenarios. Overall, the main contributions of the paper are: (1) this paper significantly contributes to solving one of the most important problems of wheel-rail contact optimization: prediction of wear indices in tight curved rail tracks; (2) this paper accesses the predicted value of the wear index in different curve radius scenarios, creating the possibility of adaptation in both ways – to adapt the rail profile to the wheel type and/ or to adapt the wheel type to the rail profile type.
  1. J. Pomoboa, J. Ambrósioa, M. Pereiraa, R. Lewisb, R. D. Joyceb, C. Ariaudoc, “Development of a wear prediction tool for steel railway wheels using three alternative wear function,” in Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Contact Mechanics and Wear of Rail/Wheel Systems, Florence, Italy, 2009, pp. 238 – 245.
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Professional Papers


Erick Hernández, Ricardo Contreras, Cabrera Ixquiac, Osmar Hernández, Fredy Pérez

Pages: 308-309

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2017.62

The IAEA on human health reports, No. 1, Criteria and Recommendations for Academic Training, Clinical Training and Certification in Latin America, suggests that the Medical Physicists of the region be accredited. "The accreditation is issued by a duly authorized professional entity (for example, a college or a professional society) serves as a public recognition that gives quality to the service provided."

The Ministry of Energy and Mines of Guatemala, which regulates the use of ionizing radiation in Guatemala through the Directorate General of Energy, took as reference for the accreditation and practice of the profession of Medical Physics in Guatemala the report No. 1 of the IAEA. For this reason, the National College of Engineers from Guatemala (CIG), where the physicists are members, created the CIG Medical Physics Commission and this commission convened to Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala USAC (national university), Directorate General of Energy DGE and Guatemalan Association of Physics AGF to appoint their representatives for the creation of the National Committee of Medical Physics, whose functions will be to endorse the registration of medical physicists, and deliberate regarding medical physics when required.
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  3. Gobierno de Guatemala. (10/01/1986). 11-86 Decreto Ley. (The Government of Guatemala. (Jan. 10, 1986). 11-86 Law decree.)
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  4. E. Hernandez et al., “Medical Physics in Guatemala (Historical review)”, in Proc. of the IRPA 2013, Glasgow, Scotland, 2013.
    Retrieved from: http://www.irpa.net/members/P03.65.pdf
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  5. Congreso de la República de Guatemala. (21/12/2001). Decreto No. 72-2001 Ley de Colegiación Profesional Obligatoria. (Congress of the Republic of Guatemala. (Dec. 21, 2001). Decree No. 72-2001 Obligatory act on Professional Asotiations.)
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  6. “Informes sobre salud humana del OIEA: Criterios y recomnedaciones para su formación académica, entrenamiento clínico y certificación en América Latina,” Organismo Internacional de Energía Atómica, Viena, Austria, 2010. (“IAEA on human health reports: Criteria and Recommendations for Academic Training, Clinical Training and Certification in Latin America,”International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, Rep. 1, 2010.)
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    Retrieved on: Jan. 22, 2017.
  7. Dirección General de Energía. (14/02/2001). No. 55-2001 Reglamento de seguridad y protección radiológica de la ley para el control, uso y aplicación de radioisótopos y radiaciones ionizantes. (General Directorate for Energy. (Feb. 14, 2001). No. 55-2001 Safety and radiological protection regulation by law for the control, use and application of radioizotopes and ionizing radiation.)
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  8. Leyes y Reglamentos, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Ciudad Universitaria, Guatemala, 2006. (Laws and Regulations, University of San Carlos, University City, Guatemala, 2006.)