Vol. 1, 2016

Radiobiology

RADIATION SENSITIVITY OF BACTERIA CONTAMINATING FOOD

Anna Suponkina, Michael Zhukovsky, Anna Krivonogova, Kseniya Shcherbakova, Kseniya Moiseeva

Pages: 1-4

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.01

Pulsed accelerators with high doses per pulse are currently widely used. The effects of this irradiation on microorganisms are poorly understood. The objectives of our study are: 1) the development of methods to study the effects of pulsed electron beams on microorganisms; 2) the preliminary study of radiation resistance of microorganisms interesting in the context of food safety. In this study, irradiation was conducted on two pulsed accelerators: URT-1 and URT-0.5. Experiments on the dose distribution in the layer of 80 mg/cm2 at URT-0.5 and URT-1 showed that the penetration of radiation at URT-1 is greater than at URT-0.5. So, for our experiments, URT-1 is more suitable than URT-0.5.We investigated the effects of pulsed electron beams on the survival of bacterial (Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella) and fungal (Aspergillus) food spoilage agents. The results for Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, fungus Aspergillus are similar. 6kGy is the dose at which the survival is reduced by 40-50%, 11 kGy is the dose at which the survival is reduced by 90-100% (11 kGy is upper limit of radappertization). The inactivation of bacteria on the accelerator URT-1 occurred at lower doses compared with the accelerator URT-0.5.
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PROTON INDUCTION OF GENE MUTATIONS

Natalia Koltovaya, Alexandra Kokoreva, Natalia Shvaneva, Nadya Zhuchkina

Pages: 5-6

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.02

We investigated the effect of low-LET proton irradiation on gene mutations. DNA lesions were caused by the acute exposure of the cells to 150 MeV proton irradiation (linear energy transfer of 0.539 keV/μm) and 60Co γ-rays at doses up to 25 Gy. To detect gene mutations, we used a forward mutation rate assay that detects the mutations inactivating the arginine permease gene (CanR mutations) and a reversion assay detecting the frameshift mutations that reverts a 4-base insertion in the LYS2 gene (lys2-Bgl). The dose responses can be described by a linear relationship for both types of gene mutations. Different radiation sources that induce mutations have the relative biological effectiveness values of 1.25 for frameshift mutations and 1.69 for forward gene mutations CanR. So, the damage induced by proton irradiation of cells appears to be more serious than the damage induced by γ-irradiation, which is indicated by an increase in the yield of not only DSBs but also gene mutations.
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EVALUATION OF ENDOCRINE CHANGES IN LIQUIDATORS: THE EARLY AND LATE POST-ACCIDENT PERIOD

N. M. Hovhannisyan, A. G. Karapetyan, V. S. Grigoryan

Pages: 7-11

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.03

The aim of the current research was the detection and assessment of endocrine dysfunctions of disaster fighters of Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe depending on radiation and non-radiation factors in the early and distant post-disaster periods with the help of system analysis methods.

One can come across works dedicated to the study of endocrine dysfunctions of organisms exposed to a high level of radiation, but there are not enough data about the changes in endocrine indices in the case of low level radiation. This is the reason why it is of interest to find out the role of endocrine indices in the development of radiobiological effects in the case of low dosage exposure with the help of system analysis methods in disaster fighters of Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe (liquidators).

The results of correlation, dispersion and multi regression analyses of endocrine indices are presented in the study. The hypothyroidism model is presented.

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Radiation Chemistry

RADIOLYSIS OF AQUEOUS GLYCERALDEHYDE

J. Cruz-Castañeda, E. Aguilar-Ovando, Thomas Buhse, S. Ramos-Bernal, G. Cocho and Alicia Negron-Mendoza

Pages: 12-14

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.04

Chemical evolution encompasses the formation of organic molecules before the appearance of life. In this context, we study the radiolysis of glyceraldehyde, a key molecule for the formation of sugars and other compounds. The glyceraldehyde was very unstable under irradiation and formed many sugar-like products. The most important for chemical evolution are ethylene glycol and glycoladehyde.
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Radiation Physics

ALLOWED AND FIRST FORBIDDEN β-- DECAY STUDY OF 16N 16O IN RANDOM PHASE APPROXIMATION FRAMEWORK

B. Firoozi, M. Malek Mohammadi, S. M. Hosseini Pooya

Pages: 15-20

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.05

Within a developed and sophisticated particle-hole random phase approximation, a systematic study of the β-decay of 16N to 16O has been carried out. The theoretical framework used starts from a mean-field calculation with a phenomenological Woods-Saxon potential that includes spin-orbit and coulomb terms to get single-particle energies and wave functions. A schematic residual surface delta interaction (SDI) is then introduced on top of the mean-field and is treated within a random phase approximation (RPA). The parameters of this residual force are optimized for each individual state to reproduce the experimental excitation energies. Then, beta-decay properties are calculated for the possible allowed transitions, as well as for the first forbidden unique transition. In this approach, the endpoint energy, comparative and partial half-lives of theoretically possible transitions are calculated. The final results for the optimized calculation are reasonable and close to the available experimental data.
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PLATFORM DEPENDENT EFFICIENCY OF A MONTE CARLO CODE FOR TISSUE NEUTRON DOSE ASSESSMENT

Slobodan Milutinović, Filip Jeremić, Marko Mišić, Miloš Vujisić, Predrag Marinković

Pages: 21-25

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.06

Efficiency of a Monte Carlo algorithm for neutron dose calculation is compared in two implementations: a standard C++ code executed sequentially, and a CUDA C/C++ code which utilizes GPU resources for highly parallel processing. Both versions of the algorithm, developed specifically for this investigation, are based on the same physical model for the assessment of neutron dose in tissues, including lung, cortical bone and adipose tissue. The model treats emission and interaction of neutrons stochastically, utilizing cross sections for relevant interaction types. Several intentional simplifications have been introduced into the physical model used for simulations, which have allowed parts of the two codes to be related to one another in a straightforward way. A neutron's history is terminated when it leaves the outer ellipsoid (representing the human body), experiences any of the absorption interactions (inside one of the inner geometrical regions, representing tissues or organs), or if its energy falls below the cut-off limit set at 0.001 eV. The two approaches to algorithm implementation are compared according to execution speed, at various neutron source energies and for an increasing number of neutron histories. The fact that particle histories in a Monte Carlo simulation are independent from one another makes this kind of calculation suitable for implementation on parallel processing platforms. CUDA framework offers higher speeds of code execution, allowing more particle histories to be processed within a set time frame, and thus yields lower statistical uncertainty and higher reliability of the calculated neutron dose values. Appropriating standard C++ codes for CUDA is faced with specific challenges, which are described in the investigated case of neutron dose assessment. Despite the physical representation of neutron transport being somewhat simplified, comparison of both implementations to results obtained from MCNP shows good agreement in a wide range of neutron energies.
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THE IMPOSSIBILITY OF PRODUCING I-131 FROM ITS DAUGHTER Xe-131 BY PHOTONUCLEAR REACTIONS

Tuncay Bayram, Serkan Akkoyun, Necati Çelik, Emel Haciislamoglu, Serhat Uruk, Şevki Şentürk

Pages: 26-28

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.07

131I is one of the radioisotopes in nuclear medicine procedures for diagnostic and treatment purposes. It decays to 131Xe by emitting beta particles. In this study, we have investigated the reproduction possibility of 131I from 131Xe by using different reactions, including a photonuclear reaction step. We have used TALYS computer program for calculating cross-sections of the reactions. It was seen that it was not an easy task to reproduce 131I from its decay product 131Xe because of low reaction cross-section values. According to the results, we have seen that the calculations are in harmony with the TENDL 2014 database.
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Radiation in Medicine

MAMMOGRAPHY IN SERBIA: IMAGE QUALITY AND RADIATION DOSE

Stefan Rafajlovic, Danijela Arandjic, Predrag Bozovic, Sandra Ceklic, Djordje Lazarevic, Olivera Ciraj-Bjelac

Pages: 29-32

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.08

The purpose of this study is to investigate the radiation dose and technical image quality in mammography in Serbia after two years of implementation of the breast screening programme. A total of 186 mammography units, including Full-Field Digital Mammography (FFDM), Computed Radiography (CR) and Screen-Film Mammography (SFM) units were used in the patient dose and image quality assessment. Patient dose, in terms of Mean Glandular Dose (MGD), was assessed for the standard breast, while image quality was evaluated in terms of spatial resolution, threshold contrast visibility and Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) for CR and FFDM units. The mean MGD assessed was (1.8±0.94) mGy, (1.3±0.51) and (1.7±0.64) for CR, FFDM and SFM, respectively. Spatial resolution was better than 12 lp/mm only for 3/186 (1.6%) units. In 34/186 (18%) units, spatial resolution was less than 5 lp/mm. Threshold contrast visibility was better than 1.2 in 41/186 (22%). Mean CNR for CR and FFDM units was 5.2 ±2.2. Following the initial implementation at the beginning of the population-based breast cancer screening campaign, it is essential to establish an effective system of regular and periodic Quality Control (QC) tests and to ensure that high-quality mammograms with minimal possible radiation dose to population are included in the screening.
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  11. A. Mackenzie et al., “Breast Cancer Detection Rates Using Four Different Types of Mammography Detectors,” Eur. Radiol., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 874-883, Mar. 2016
    DOI: 10.1007/s00330-015-3885-y
  12. D. O'Leary and L. Rainford, “A Comparison of Mean Glandular Dose Diagnostic Reference Levels within the All-Digital Irish National Breast Screening Programme and the Irish Symptomatic Breast Services,” Rad. Prot. Dosim., vol. 153, no. 3, pp. 300-308, Mar. 2013
    DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncs112
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ESTIMATION OF DOSES FROM PATIENTS UNDERGOING TREATMENTS WITH RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS

Natasha Ivanova, Severina Ivanova

Pages: 33-35

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.09

The diagnosis and treatment with radiopharmaceuticals are important moments in clinical practice. In this case, it is especially important to take measures to protect the people who will have contact with a patient with introduced radiopharmaceuticals. In this article, the evaluation of the patient doses and their change over time in the diagnosis with radiopharmaceuticals was made. What was considered was the case in the diagnosis of patients with radiopharmaceutical Fluorine-18 by positron emission tomography and radiopharmaceutical Technetium-99m by gamma camera.
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  2. Г. Василев, Основи на радиационната защита, София, България: Тита конс., 2008. (G. Vassilev, “Basic principles of radiation protection”, Theta Consult, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2008)
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Radiation Measurements

A STUDY OF MONITORING HIGH FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD POLLUTION IN URBAN AREAS

A. Cannuli, E. Calabrò, M.T. Caccamo, S. Magazù

Pages: 36-39

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.10

In this paper, the results of a study of monitoring high-frequency electromagnetic field pollution in some residential areas of Spadafora (38°13'29"28 N Latitude, 15°22'48"36 E Longitude), a little town in the province of Messina with a large number of base stations, and a statistical analysis of values recorded for these stations, were reported. The measurement values were collected by means of a NARDA SRM-3000 radiation meter with an isotropic antenna that can be used for measurements in the frequency range 75 MHz - 3 GHz. The obtained measurement levels were compared with the exposure limits, warning values and quality objectives established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Council of Ministers Presidential Decree (D.P.C.M.) for electromagnetic fields generated in a frequency range between 100 kHz and 300 GHz. In particular, the amplitude fluctuations of the electromagnetic radiations radiated by the present five base stations were recorded for a long time and statistical analyses were performed for certain spectrum ranges under far-field conditions by using an isotropic field probe and selective spectrum analyzer. The measurement results for each station were compared and their contributions to the combined radiation were analyzed through a software packet to calculate the high-frequency electromagnetic field and for the interpolation points. The data were also processed using wavelet analysis. In almost all cases, the electromagnetic field values respected the established limits, but one case has proven more interesting, because of the strong vicinity of a base station near to inhabited houses and to an elementary school. In particular, in this urban area, values close to 5 V/m at the frequency of 900 and 2300 MHz were measured, very near to the limits indicated by the ICNIRP and the D.P.C.M. Further research is underway to assess the effects on health of people who live there.
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    DOI: 10.1163/156939307780616829
  2. T.T. Zygiridis and T.D. Tsiboukis, “Assessment of Human Head Exposure to Wireless Communication Devices: Combined Electromagnetic and Thermal Studies for Diverse Frequency Bands,” Prog. Electromag. Res. B, vol. 9, pp. 83-96, 2008
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  15. L.-C. Kuo, Y.-C. Kan and H.-R. Chuang, “Analysis of a 900/1800-MHz Dual-Band Gap Loop Antenna on a Handset with Proximate Head and Hand Model,” J. Electromag. Wav. Appl., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 107-122, 2007
    DOI: 10.1163/156939307779391722

APPLICATION OF TAGGED NEUTRON TECHNOLOGY IN RESEARCH, INDUSTRY, AND HOMELAND SECURITY

Yuri Barmakov, Viacheslav Batyaev, Evgeniy Bogolyubov, Alexander Gavryuchenkov, Maxim Karetnikov, Dmitri Yurkov, Valentine Ryzhkov

Pages: 40-44

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.11

Each 14 MeV neutron of T(d,n)He4 reaction is accompanied (tagged) by 3.5 MeV alpha-particle emitted in the opposite direction. A position- and time-sensitive alpha-detector measures time and coordinates of the associated alpha-particle for determining time and direction of the neutron escape. A spectrum of gamma rays emitted as a result of interaction of tagged neutrons with nuclei allows the identification of the chemical composition of the irradiated object. The recording of alpha-gamma coincidences within a very narrow time window provides the possibility of background suppression by means of spatial and time discrimination of events. The Nanosecond Tagged Neutron Technology (NTNT) based on this principle has great potentialities in various fields, such as study of neutron scattering, revision of neutron differential cross-sections, measuring the chemical composition of ores in mining industry, detection of explosives, mines, drugs and chemical warfare agents, etc. The Dukhov Research Institute of Automatics produces a complete set of NTNT equipment including neutron generators with built-in alpha-detectors, electronic hardware for alpha-gamma coincidence data acquisition, mobile and stationary NTNT systems for various research, industrial and homeland security applications.
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INVESTIGATION OF REDISTRIBUTION ARTIFICIAL (137Cs, 90Sr) AND NATURAL (40K) RADIOISOTOPES IN DIFFERENT USAGE SOIL

Ingrida Pliopaite Bataitiene, Renata Mikalauskiene

Pages: 45-48

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.12

In this study we investigated artificial (137Cs, 90Sr) and natural (40K) radioisotopes’ vertical distribution in different usage soils. Soil samples were collected in Lithuanian territory, which was, after the nuclear weapons and the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident, contaminated with artificial radionuclides. For the study, three places were selected, taking into account human activities and radioactive environmental contamination (Neris Regional Park, a field near the Ignalina nuclear power plant and a field in a village in Ukmergė district). In addition, we analysed the soil organic matter, which determines the amount of nutrients, water infiltration, ion exchange, adsorption of pollutants. Studies show that in those places the predominant soil type is sandy loam, with soil mineralization rate close to 1. In the village place and the regional park place (respectively Jogvilai and Paaliosė areas), 137Cs specific activity decreases exponentially. However in the village place (Paaliosė), at 10-15 cm soil depth, there is a noticeable increase in the specific activity of 137Cs, associated with the former nuclear weapons test contamination. 40K changes the specific activity of the soil samples taken from the depth in all areas. In the village place (Paaliosė), and the field near the Ignalina nuclear power plant (Stabatiškės), 40K specific activity decrease with the increase of depth was observed, and in the field in the village in Ukmergė district (Jogvilai) it was vice versa – with the increase of depth, 40K specific activity increases. The average 90Sr radionuclides in the soil are 6,4±1,1 Bq/kg (in the village place (Paaliosė)) 6,4±2,0 Bq/kg (field near Ignalina nuclear power plant) and 11,3±1,7 Bq / kg (the field in the village in Ukmergė district).
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IMPACT OF CALIBRATION CURVE PRECISION ON RESULTS OF IMRT VERIFICATION WITH EBT3 FILMS

Tereza Hanušová, Simona Buryšková

Pages: 49-54

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.13

This study aims to establish proper methodology for IMRT treatment plan verification using EBT3 film dosimetry. This preliminary part focuses on proper calibration curve fitting and its impact on the results of gamma analysis. First, scanner and film properties were tested in order to estimate their important characteristics. The films in use were Gafchromic EBT3 together with EPSON Perfection V700 Photo scanner. Three sets of calibration points were obtained for the EBT3 film. Irradiation was carried out on a Siemens Artiste linear accelerator in the Thomayer Hospital in Prague, using the photon energy 18MV. Film pieces of approximately 6 x 6 cm2 were irradiated with 16 doses ranging from 0 to 12 Gy in an RW3 slab phantom in reference conditions. Three sets of films of the same calibration doses were irradiated in three subsequent weeks and scanned in two different ways, changing the scanned region of interest. The mean value of each scanned piece of film was taken as one calibration point. Different calibration curves were obtained in MATLAB, Excel and FilmQA Pro. Both polynomial fits with a fourth degree polynomial and rational functions as proposed in FilmQA Pro were assessed. Different approaches to curve fitting were examined: use of all measured points; omission of bad points from the calibration curve; average values of all sets of calibration points. The single channel approach was used in all cases, using the red channel. Other films were irradiated with an IMRT plan for prostate and lymph nodes. The plan contained 5 fields with 18MV photon beams and each field was tested separately with the gantry position at 0°. Films were placed into the coronal isocentric plane of an RW3 slab phantom. They were scanned using the same protocol as for the calibration films, fitted with the different calibration curves in MATLAB and evaluated in OmniPro I’mRT software using gamma analysis with 4 %/3 mm criteria. Different gamma pass rates for the very same fields could be seen when different calibration scenarios were applied. These differences in gamma pass rates were not negligible, even when the estimated precision of calibration curves was similar. Best results were obtained with a MATLAB curve when three sets of calibration films were averaged out. This reduces the impact of film and scanner inhomogeneity and other deviations that can occur during film handling. Careful investigation into the calibration curve assessment should be carried out when implementing film dosimetry for IMRT or VMAT verification into the clinic to achieve the best results. Otherwise, the results of plan verification can be dependent on the calibration curve and can fail tolerance limits, even though the predicted and measured dose distributions agree reasonably well if measured properly.
  1. W. Crijns, F. Maes, U.A. van der Heide and F. Van den Heuvel, “Calibrating Page Sized Gafchromic EBT3 Films,” Med. Phys., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 012102-, Jan. 2013
    DOI: 10.1118/1.4771960
  2. V.C. Borca et al., “Dosimetric Characterization and Use of GAFCHROMIC EBT3 Film for IMRT Dose Verification,” J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys., vol. 14, pp. 158-171, 2013
  3. P. Papaconstadopoulos, G. Hegyi, J. Seuntjens, and S. Devic, “A Protocol for EBT3 Radiochromic Film Dosimetry Using Reflection Scanning,” Med. Phys., vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 122101-, Dec. 2014
    DOI: 10.1118/1.4901308
  4. A. Micke, D.F. Lewis and X.Yu, “Multichannel film dosimetry with nonuniformity correction,” Med. Phys., vol. 38, pp. 2523-2534, May 2011
    DOI: 10.1118/1.3576105
  5. C. Fiandra et al., “Comparison of Gafchromic EBT2 and EBT3 for Patient-Specific Quality Assurance: Cranial Stereotactic Radiosurgery Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy with Multiple Noncoplanar Arcs,” Med. Phys., vol. 40, pp. 082105-, Aug. 2013
    DOI: 10.1118/1.4816300
  6. L.J. Schreiner, O. Holmes and G. Salomons, “Analysis and Evaluation of Planned and Delivered Dose Distributions: Practical Concerns with γ- and χ- Evaluations,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 444, no. 1, pp. 012016-, June 2013
    DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/444/1/012016

HALF-LIVES OF 47Sc ISOTOPE FROM PHOTONUCLEAR REACTIONS

Serkan Akkoyun, Gökhan Koçak, Tuncay Bayram

Pages: 55-57

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.14

In order to understand atomic nuclei, photonuclear reaction is an important tool. Photons are used to induce the reactions. The use of bremsstrahlung photons generated from a medical linear accelerator is practical for performing these types of reactions. In this study, the 18 MeV endpoint energy bremsstrahlung photons have been used for activating a titanium target. By analyzing the gamma spectrum, the half-life of the 47Sc isotope has been determined to be 3.5626 days. The result is very close to the present literature values of 3.3492 days.
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Radiation Protection

EDUCATION IN RADIATION PROTECTION AND RADIATION RISK COMMUNICATION TO THE PUBLIC

Jozef Sabol, Bedřich Šesták

Pages: 58-64

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.15

The paper summarizes basic radiation protection aspects important for risk communication to the public in the case of radiation/nuclear accidents or radiological attacks. The present system of radiation protection quantities and units, as well as the associated terminology, is too complicated for those who are not professionally engaged in the field but who need to have some basic understanding of how to protect themselves and others against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Emphasis is placed on the education and training of members of the general public in order for them to acquire some basic understanding of radiation protection. This is important for achieving better cooperation and coordination between the public and the first responders as well as relevant authorities and stakeholders during radiation or nuclear emergency situations, where the main goal is the minimization of the consequences of such events in terms of personal exposure and the radioactive contamination of the environment.
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Radioecology

THE IMPACT OF SHARP TEMPERATURE SHIFT ON THE WATER-SOLUBLE FORMS OF TECHNOGENIC RADIONUCLIDES IN DIFFERENT SOIL TYPES

Miryana Varbeva, Petya Kovacheva

Pages: 65-70

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.16

Studying the impact of sharp temperature change on the migration ability of radioactive isotopes in nature is of significant importance when predicting the radioecological risk in case of nuclear contamination. The increase or decrease of the environmental temperature may affect the mobile forms of radionuclides and change their fate in the environment, especially in the first months after their release in the soils. This study presents the impact of freezing and sharp warming on the water-soluble forms of 241Am, 60Co, 137Cs and 54Mn in four soil types: Calcaric chernozem, Gleyic fluvisol, Salic fluvisol and Vertisol, classified according to World Reference Base for Soil Resources/FAO. The experiment is a case study, based on a scenario where the radionuclides have entered the soil in the form of aqueous solution, followed by a rapid change of environmental temperature. The soil samples, taken from the surface soil layer 0-10 cm were contaminated by radioactive solutions of 241Am, 60Co, 137Cs and 54Mn, separated into three subsamples and stored during two months at different temperature regimes: -18 oC, 18 оС and 40 оС with the use of a freezer and a climate chamber. The water-soluble forms of the radionuclides were determined by single extraction and gamma-spectrometric measurements. The sharp temperature shift led to the decrease of the water-soluble forms of 241Am, 60Co, 137Cs and 54Mn in the Salic fluvisol soil with acidic pH. The increase of water-soluble 60Co and 54Mn after sharp warming or freezing was determined in Calcaric chernozem, Gleyic fluvisol, and Vertisol soils. Water-soluble forms of 241Am and 137Cs decreased in Salic fluvisol and increased in Vertisol soil as the result of sharp temperature increase or decrease. The storage at freezing or “hot summer” conditions caused the decrease of water-soluble forms of 241Am in Calcaric chernozem. The increase of water-soluble 137Cs was registered in Calcaric chernozem after sharp warming and in Gleyic fluvisol after freezing.
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THE NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES IN SOILS OF SUBOTICA (SERBIA): DISTRIBUTION AND CORRESPONDING GAMMA DOSE RATES

Lj. Janković Mandić, R. Dragović, S. Pisanjuk, S. Dragović

Pages: 71-74

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.17

The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th from 50 locations on the territory of Subotica, North Serbia, were determined by gamma ray spectrometry. Based on the activity concentrations of investigated radionuclides, the absorbed gamma dose rate in the air was calculated. The mean values of activity concentrations were found to be 290 Bq/kg for 40K, 20 Bq/kg for 226Ra and 18 Bq/kg for 232Th. The total absorbed gamma dose rate varied between 24 and 46 nGy/h. The mean value of 32 nGy/h was lower than the world average value.
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RADIOACTIVITY IN ENVIRONMENT ON STARA PLANINA MOUNTAIN, IN AREA OF SUMMER SCHOOL FOR MOUNTIN ANIMAL BREEADING

Borjana Vranješ, Branislava Mitrović, Velibor Andrić, Svetlana Grdović

Pages: 75-78

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.18

The aim of this paper was to investigate the activity concentration of natural radionuclides 40K , 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and the anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs in the samples of soil, moss, hey, corn, yarrow, houseleek, milk and cheese. Samples were collected on Stara Planina Mountain, near the summer school for mountain animal breeding, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, during July 2014 and June 2015. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in soil ranged from 393-543 Bq/kg (40K), 29-57 Bq/kg (238U), 25-51 Bq/kg (226Ra), and 28-69 Bq/kg (232Th). The highest activity concentration of 137Cs in the environment of Stara Planina Mountain was measured in soil (22 Bq/kg) from the area of Smilovci and moss (26 Bq/kg) from the area of Kamenica. Radiocesium was also detected in houseleek (5.7 Bq/kg), while in animal feed and dairy products the activity concentration was below the detection limit.
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BERYLLIUM-7 SPECIFIC ACTIVITY IN SURFACE AIR AND ITS CORRELATION WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES, SOLAR ZENITH ANGLE, AND NUMBER OF SUNSPOTS

Jelena Ajtić, Vladimir Djurdjevic, Darko Sarvan, Erika Brattich, Miguel A. Hernández-Ceballos

Pages: 79-83

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.19

This analysis presents linear correlations of beryllium-7 specific activity in surface air with several variables measured in Helsinki, Finland, over 1987-2011. Measurements of beryllium-7 are linearly correlated with the following 10 variables: tropopause height; mean, minimum and maximum temperature; precipitation; atmospheric pressure; potential vorticity at 300 hPa and 200 hPa; solar zenith angle; and the number of sunspots. A time lag is also introduced into the calculations of Pearson’s linear correlation coefficients, i.e. the beryllium-7 specific activity measured on a day is correlated with a value of a given variable measured on some preceding day. In particular, the time lag is allowed to vary between 0 and 7 days for tropopause height, meteorological parameters and potential vorticity, and between 0 and 31 days for solar zenith angle and number of sunspots. In this way, we obtain sets of correlation coefficients for each pair of the analysed variables, in which we look for the maximum correlation coefficient as well as for the time lag on which this value is reached. In addition to investigating all of the available measurements, the time series are further split into seasonal subsets. Weak to moderate maximum correlation coefficients, ranging between 0.29 and 0.44, are found for the beryllium-7 specific activity with the tropopause height, temperatures and atmospheric pressure. These correlations are reached with a time lag of 0–2 days. Seasonal correlation coefficients show that the strongest linear relationships are obtained in summer. Similarly, a moderate correlation (0.48) with the solar zenith angle is reached with a time lag of 0 days, but the seasonal correlation coefficients in this case show a weaker relationship during different seasons. On the other hand, our analysis suggests that the correlations of beryllium-7 with precipitation, potential vorticity and the number of sunspots are not statistically significant.
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STUDY OF RADIOACTIVITY IN ENVIRONMENT AROUND POWER PLANTS TENT A AND KOLUBARA DUE TO COAL BURNING FOR 2015

Marija M. Janković, Milica M. Rajačić, Dragana J. Todorović, Nataša B. Sarap, Jelena D. Nikolić, Gordana K. Pantelić, Milanka M. Krstić

Pages: 84-89

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.20

The results referring to radioactivity analysis in soil, water, plant, coal, slag and flying ash samples from the environment around two power plants “Nikola Tesla A” and “Kolubara” for 2015 are explained. The analysis of samples was performed by gamma spectrometry using HPGe detector. In the investigated soil, flying ash, slag and coal samples, naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U, as well as the man-made radionuclide 137Cs, were detected. The highest values of natural radionuclides were obtained in flying ash samples, which is known for the effect of concentrating the combustion of coal. In plant samples, beside these radionuclides, 210Pb and 7Be were also detected. In water samples, 226Ra and 40K were detected, while the concentrations of 232Th, 235U, 238U and 137Cs were below the minimum detectable concentration. In water (river, drinking, drain and overflow) samples, beside the gamma spectrometry analysis, gross alpha and gross beta activity was also determined. The obtained values for gross alpha and beta activity in these water samples are in accordance with the current legislation in Serbia (Official Gazette 86/11), which refers only to drinking water. The results presented in this paper showed that there was no significant difference in the activity of radionuclides in all investigated samples compared to the values obtained in previous years.
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Radiation Detectors

DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF A LOW INTENSITY LED DRIVER FOR DETECTOR STUDY PURPOSES

G. Georgiev, V. Kozhuharov, L. Tsankov

Pages: 90-94

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.21

A custom LED driver producing light pulses with very low intensity and O(10 ns) duration was designed and constructed. A microcontroller was employed to handle the amplitudes and the repetition rates of the output pulses. In addition, it also provided both a PC control of the system through a RS232 interface and an external trigger I/O. A WLS fibre directly coupled to a LED provides unique characteristics of the output light pulse. The combination of a quasi delta light pulse source and physical absorption – emission medium results in an output light profile maximally close to the plastic sctintillators. The light generator is intended to be used to test the response and the rate capability of different photodetectors. Its design, operational characteristics, and stability are described and discussed.
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Radiation Effects

LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT XANTHAN PREPARED BY GAMMA IRRADIATION AND THEIR EFFECTS TO DEVELOPMENT OF SEEDLINGS

Nguyen Van Binh, Tran Bang Diep, Hoang Dang Sang, Hoang Phuong Thao, Nguyen Thi Thom, Tran Minh Quynh

Pages: 95-98

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.22

Low molecular weight (Mw) xanthan was prepared by gamma Co-60 irradiation at both dry and paste-like states. The viscosity average molecular weight (Mv) of the irradiated xanthan gradually decreased with the increase of the radiation dose. Its Mv slowly reduced to 1.8 × 103 kDa from 1.1 × 104 kDa of non-irradiated xanthan by irradiation at 500 kGy in the solid state, and quickly reduced to 5.3 × 102 kDa by irradiation at 50 kGy in the paste-like state. However, the viscosity of the xanthan is still high enough for utilization as a bio-adhesive polymer. Therefore, the low Mw xanthan prepared by gamma irradiation has been studied as the additive to improve the effectiveness of fertilizer. In this study, foliar fertilizers supplemented with xanthan and irradiated xanthan were applied to maize and soybean seedlings. The results suggested that their developments were much increased by the presence of irradiated xanthan compared to initial xanthan, as indicated by the increases of their plant height, root length and fresh biomass.
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THE HIGH ENERGY IRRADIATION AGEING OF REINFORCED ELASTOMERS BASED ON RUBBER BLENDS

Gordana Marković, Milena Marinović-Cincović, Vojislav Jovanović, Suzana Samaržija-Jovanović, Ljiljana Tanasić, Radmila Radičević, Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić

Pages: 99-102

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.23

Elastomers are very often used in severe environments, for instance, in nuclear power plants, where they may be degraded by high-energy radiation and heat. The ageing behaviour of materials used in different equipments is very important. Elastomers based on chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM) are used for cable jacketing materials and have excellent radiation resistance needed in nuclear power stations. In the current work, the influence of γ-irradiation dose (100, 200 and 400 kGy) on the ageing of reinforced blends based on CSM, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and natural rubber (NR) has been evaluated. The content of silica in CSM/SBR and CSM/NR rubber blends was varied. The curing behavior of compounds was estimated using the oscillating disk reometer. The irradiation of nano composites has been performed in air in the Co 60 radiation sterilization unit with the dose rate of 10 kGy h–1. The thermal properties were studied by thermogravimetric test. The mechanical properties (hardness, modulus at 100% elongation, tensile strength and elongation at break) were determined before and after irradiation. A decrease in the elastic modulus and in the strain at break has been observed with increasing irradiation. At higher doses, the network chain scissions become the main degradation process, the cross-linked topology becomes irregular, and material contains more and more weak zones, which deteriorate the ultimate properties.
  1. G. Marković, S. Samardžija-Jovanović, V. Jovanović and M. Marinović-Cincović, “Thermal Stability of CR/CSM Rubber Blends Filled with Nano- and Micro-Silica Particles,” J. Therm. Anal. Cal., vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 881-888, June 2010
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  2. G. Marković, M. Marinović-Cincović, V. Jovanović, S. Samardžija-Jovanović and J. Budinski-Simendić, “The Effect of Gamma Radiation on the Ageing of Sulfur Cured NR/CSM and NBR/CSM Rubber Blends Reinforced by Carbon Black,” CICEQ, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 291-298, 2009
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  3. H. Wu et al., “New Understanding of Morphology Evolution of Thermoplastic Vulcanizate (TPV) during Dynamic Vulcanization,” ACS Chem. Eng., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 26-32, 2015
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  4. N. Sombatsompop and C. Kumnuantip, Rheology, Cure Characteristics, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Tire Tread Reclaimed Rubber/Natural Rubber Compounds, J. App. Polym. Sci., vol. 87, no. 10, pp. 1723–1731, Mar. 2003
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  5. S. Samaržija-Jovanović, V. Jovanović, G. Marković, S. Konstantinović and M. Marinovic-Cincović, “Nano-Composites Based on Silica Reinforced Ethylene–Propylene–Diene–Monomer/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber Blends,” Compos. B: Eng., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 1244–1250, July 2011
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Radiology

SIGNIFICANCE OF LUNG HRCT FOR THE EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS

E. Petrova

Pages: 103-105

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.24

The objective of the study was to make a comparison between the radiological perfusion of p small round opacities (p) on a conventional chest radiograph (CCR) and p’ opacities on a chest HRCT (CHRCT) as well as to assess the diagnostic value of HRCT in patients suspected of having nodular pneumoconiosis. 84 workers exposed to quartz, endangered by pneumoconiosis and patients with reticular and micro-nodular pneumoconiosis were studied. A comparison between the mean profusion of p’ small round opacities on CHRCT with the mean profusion of p small round opacities on CCR was done. A multiple regression analysis was performed. The mean profusion of the p’ small opacities on CHRCT was more intensive in comparison to the mean profusion of the p opacities on CCR. A statistically significant correlation between p’ and p opacities was found (R= 0.36337; Р< 0.001). CHRCT turned out to be a more sensitive image method for the detection of p small round opacities. We recommend CHRCT for the early diagnosis of reticular, reticular nodular and nodular pneumoconiosis.
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  5. T. Kraus, H.J. Raithel, K.G. Hering, “Evaluation and Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomographyc Findings in Patients with Pneumoconiosis,” Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, vol. 68, pp. 249-254, May 1996
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Nuclear Medicine

PREPARING FOR CLINICAL DRIFT OF PET/CT, AN EXAMPLE FROM NORWAY

Julie Haglund

Pages: 106-110

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.25

The challenge of installing and starting clinical operations of PET/CT in a hospital requires cooperation from a multidisciplinary team. When not only the PET/CT modality is new to the department, but also the entire hospital facility is new, even greater efforts are required in order to successfully begin clinical activity. At the new Østfold Hospital Kalnes in Norway, the decision to install a PET/CT in the nuclear medicine department was made after designing and planning a room for SPECT/CT, which meant modifying the physical buildings of the new hospital during a late phase of construction. Shielding had to be increased in order to accommodate positron annihilation radiation energy. Østfold Hospital Kalnes had the opportunity to choose among three manufacturers of PET/CT machines, which required evaluation and research by a multidisciplinary team in order to meet the present and future ambitions of the hospital. The staff of the nuclear medicine department worked with clinical SPECT/CT, but nobody had previously worked with PET/CT. Training became the critical part of preparing for the installation and clinical implementation of a new modality. It was also decided to join the EARL FDG quality assurance program from the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. Participation in EARL enhances confidence of staff and patients, and increases possibilities for collaboration and research.
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  8. Manual for EARL FDG-PET/CT Accreditation, ver. 2.1.b, Research 4 Life, an EANM Initiative, Mar. 2014

  9. S. Ivanova, A. Artinyan, “Calculations and Analysis of the Radiation Protection of PET/CT Center,” BgNS TRANSAC., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 54–57, 2015

Radiotherapy

THE PENUMBRA OF IRRADIATIONS IN LINEAR ACCELERATORS, ITS USE IN RADIOTHERAPY OF CANCER DISEASES, NEGATIVE EFFECTS, AND THE POSSIBILITIES OF REDUCING THEM

Labinot Kastrati, Gazmend Nafezi, Gëzim Shehi

Pages: 111-113

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.26

The aim of this study is to highlight the understanding of radiation, changes in the radiation of the same type but with different energy, the causes of these changes, the damages caused by their presence in the primary beam, or the reduction of the effectiveness of radiation, compared with the same radiation beam in which the presence of penumbra is higher. Penumbra is the region near the edge of the field margin where the dose falls rapidly. The dose falls off around the geometric beam edge that is sigmoid in shape and extends under the collimator jaws into the penumbral tail region, where there is a small component of the dose due to the transmission through the collimator jaws (transmission penumbra), a component attributed to the finite source size (geometric penumbra) and a significant component due to the in-patient X ray scatter (scatter penumbra). The total penumbra is referred to as the physical penumbra and it is the sum of the three individual penumbras: transmission, geometric and scatter. Without pretending that we can eliminate the negative effects caused by the presence of penumbra in the primary beam, we note that: a part of the quantitative reduction of the radiation dose already performed through the use of high energy of linear accelerators and further reduction of the energy difference between the primary radiation with average beam energy can significantly improve the quality of the beam, including radiation.
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Environmental Chemistry

THE EVALUATION OF THE DITHIZONE PERFORMANCE AS A COMPLEXING REAGENT FOR SUPERCRITICAL CO2 EXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

Jeton Halili, Altin Mele, Tahir Arbneshi, Adelina Halili, Valbonë Mehmeti, Kaltrina Jusufi, Avni Berisha

Pages: 114-116

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.27

Heavy metal ions in liquid samples, apart from classical methods of extraction, can also be efficiently and environmentally friendly extracted by the use of supercritical CO2, containing a suitable complexing agent - ligand. This study represents the experimental data for the extraction of three heavy metals (Cu, Zn and Cd) from aqueous samples in the presence of dithizone as a ligand. The extractions by supercritical CO2 were accomplished at p=120 bars with t=50°C through the use of the dynamic technique. After the CO2 addition to the aqueous solution containing corresponding heavy metal ions, the pressure and temperature were set and extraction was performed in three different time periods: 30, 60 and 120 min (t=const., p=const. with a CO2 flow rate of 2 mL min−1). Once the extraction was stopped, the CO2 was released slowly through a restrictor. Methanol was used as a modifier (v/v) 10% and the pH value was set to 10. After the accomplishment of the extraction process, the leftover aqueous solution in the extractor was analyzed for its metal content by the use of the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The overall performance of the use of the dithizone as a ligand in all three cases of heavy metal ions enhanced greatly the extraction efficiency of these ligand/metal species.
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  8. A.F. Lagalante et al., “Solubilities of Copper (II) and Chromium (III) beta.-Diketonates in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide,” Inorg. Chem., vol. 34, no. 23, pp. 5781-5785, Nov. 1995
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  9. J. Halili, A. Mele and T. Arbneshi, “Liquid and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Cu and Zn from Aqueous Solution used Dithiocarbamate as Chelating Agent,” J. Int. Envir. App. Sci., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 102-107, Apr. 2015
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  15. G. Gorbach and F. Pohl, “Die Anreicherung und spektralanalytische Bestimmung der Spurenmetalle. I,” Mikrochemie vereinigt mit Mikrochimica acta, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 258-267, Sep. 1951
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Neutron and Heavy Ion Radiations

BACE0.85Y0.15O3-Δ BASED MATERIALS FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS: ROOM-TEMPERATURE NEUTRON DIFFRACTION STUDY

K. Krezhov, D. Vladikova, G. Raikova, T. Malakova, I. Genov, Tz. Nonova, E. Svab, M. Fabian

Pages: 117-123

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.28

The crystal structure of oxygen-deficient BaCe0.85Y0.15O3−δ (BCY15) materials prepared by auto-combustion with following calcination at high temperature was determined from neutron and X-ray powder diffraction. The materials were used recently as cathode, anode and central membrane in a novel design of SOFC: dual membrane fuel cell (dmFC). The dmFC design exploits the good mixed (protonic and oxide ion) conductivity in BaCe 0.85Y0.15O2.825 at working temperatures of 600-700 oC. It allows the introduction of a separate compartment (central membrane) for water formation and evacuation. The central membrane has mixed ionic conductivity ensured by a composite material and porous microstructure. Profile refinements within the orthorhombic space group Pnma reproduced the neutron diffraction profiles of all the materials (dense, porous, powder) based on BCY15 conductivity presenting similar model crystal structures to protonic conductor BaCe 0.9Y0.10O2.95 and the parent undoped BaCeO3 perovskite.
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Medical Imaging

NEED FOR REVISING PATIENT DOSE PROTOCOLS IN PET MEDICAL IMAGING BASED ON NOVEL TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENTS

Vojislav Antic, Julie Haglund

Pages: 124-126

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.29

Clinical studies have shown that it is possible to improve image contrast up to 30% when time of flight (TOF) technology is used compared to non­TOF technology [1]. On the other hand, it has been shown that, combined with the point spread function (PSF) information and current ordered-subset-maximum-likelihood (OSEM) algorithm, image quality for overweight patients could be significantly improved by applying TOF. This encourages further study and a change of the dose model based on patient weight. This change would result in the revision of the existing EANM procedure guidelines, either replacing them or combining them with a system based on a body­mass­index (BMI) concept, and thus result in significant dose reductions with stronger patient­based dose optimisation. This will also reduce exposure of the nuclear medicine staff. Bearing in mind that the compromise in clinical practice is either to reduce the time of the scan or to reduce the patient dose, and that this depends mostly on whether a facility has a medical cyclotron or not, this work focuses on the overview of possibilities for potential reduction of patient dose based on appropriate clinical studies.
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  12. J.H. Geismar et al., “Intra­Individual Comparison of PET/CT with Different Body Weight­Adapted FDG Dosage Regimens,” Acta Radiol. Open, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1-9, Feb. 2015
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  15. Y. Masuda, C. Kondo, Y. Matsuo, M. Uetani and K. Kusakabe, “Comparison of Imaging Protocols for 18F-­FDG PET/CT in Overweight Patients: Optimizing Scan Duration Versus Administered Dose,” J. Nucl. Med., vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 844-848, June 2009
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EVALUATION OF VARIABILITY OF SUPRAORBITAL NOTCHES AND FORAMINA USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY VOLUME RENDERING

Marija Dakovic Bjelakovic, Jelena Popovic, Dragan Stojanov, Jelena Ignjatovic, Tanja Dzopalic

Pages: 127-132

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.30

In this study, we aimed to estimate the anatomical variations of the supraorbital notch or supraorbital foramen (SON/F) using three-dimensional computer tomography (3D-CT) volume rendering and evaluate these variations related to gender and side.

One hundred and five adults (53 men and 52 women), aged 21 to 83 years, without any trauma or bone malformation of facial bones, were included in our study. Presence of SON/F, its shape, diameter in millimeters, and distance from the reference point were recorded.

The most common presentation of the supraorbital passage was single SON and it was noted in 51.43% on the right and in 57.14% on the left skull side. The single SOF was noted in 3.81% on the right and 5.71% on the left skull side. Double notch was found in 1.90% on the right and in 0.95% on the left side, while double foramen was not found in subjects included in our study. SON/F was not found in 42.90% and 36.20% on the right and left side, respectively. The average SON diameter was 3.7 ± 0.9 mm, and the average SOF diameter was 1.7 ± 0.5 mm. The average distance of SON/F to the facial midline was 21.9 ± 3.1 mm. The average distance of SON/F to the temporal crest of the frontal bone was 26.0 ± 3.0 mm and to the frontozygomatic suture was 27.5 ± 2.6 mm. Statistically significant difference was observed between the right and left side for the distance from SON/F to frontozygomatic suture (p < 0.01). No significant difference was found between the left and right sides in the other measurements (p > 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between males and females for some of these parameters.

The results of this study provide useful information about the location of the supraorbital neurovascular bundle and may be used in preoperative evaluation.

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ANALYSIS OF FILTERING MATERIAL AND ITS EFFECT ON X-RAY FEATURES BY USING MONTE CARLO METHOD FOR MEDICAL IMAGING APPLICATIONS

Hüseyin Ozan Tekin, Ümit Kara

Pages: 133-135

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.31

In recent years, X-rays with different radiological devices have been frequently used. X-rays are produced in vacuum tubes by bombarding a metal target with high-speed electrons whereas radiological images occur after the resulting radiation passes through the patient’s body onto a photographic plate or a digital recorder to produce a radiological image. In radiology, devices that use X-rays can be classified as radiography, fluoroscopy, mammography and CT. In this study, we present a general approach for the simulation of X-ray spectra emitted from targets bombarded with electron beams for different energy ranges which are widely used in different radiological devices. The electron and photon transport is simulated by using the SpekCalc GUI code (version 1.1). In this study, we calculated the total photon spectra of the Tungsten (W) target for 150 keV and 12c anode angle and certain energies for required energy values which are necessary for a successful radiodiagnostic process. We also performed simulations with the same parameters by adding the filter material into the X-ray tube. We achieved a good agreement between the clinical data and the computational method. The results showed that the computational method is in accordance with the manufacturer parameters.
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COMPARISON STUDY OF CLINICAL MEASUREMENTS AND MONTE CARLO METHOD ON RADIATION DOSE RATE CHANGES BY DISTANCE IN COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) FACILITY

Huseyin Ozan Tekin, Umit Kara, Ozlem Ozturk, Tugba Manici, E.Ebru Altunsoy, Baris Cavli

Pages: 136-138

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.32

A Computerized Tomography (CT) scan combines a series of X-ray images obtained from different angles to create the patient’s cross-sectional images of body parts. It can be used especially for bones, blood vessels and soft tissues. As a comparison between two devices, the obtained information by using CT scan on the patient is more significant than the information obtained by a normal plain X-ray device. Since CT uses various doses of X-rays for the imaging of the body, radiation protection became a major topic of investigation. One of the fundamental principles of radiation protection is the distance factor. In CT facilities, the maximum dose occurs near the gantry and the dose rate decreases by distance. In order to know the rate of the reduction of the amount of dose, that distance is very important for the radiation protection procedure, especially for applying the criteria of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on radiation protection. The aim of this study was the validation of the Monte Carlo method for such backscattering studies. In this study, we measured the backscattered dose rates with small distances from the gantry to the exit door and compared them with the Monte Carlo (MC) results. In order to calculate the Monte Carlo results, we also modeled a simulation input for the CT facility by using MCNP-X (version 2.4.0) Monte Carlo code. We obtained the backscattered dose rate changes that depend on the distance factor by using the Monte Carlo method. We achieved a good agreement between MCNP-X results and clinical experimental results. It can be concluded that Monte Carlo (MC) is a strong tool for radiation protection calculations in CT facilities.
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APPLIED STRUCTURAL DETAIL ENHANCEMENT METHODS IN VIDEOENDOSCOPIC IMAGING AND THEIR USE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

Katsiaryna Halavataya, Tatyana Ginko, Ludmila Kalatskaya

Pages: 139-142

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.33

Introduction of laser systems to clinical practice significantly amplifies the abilities of endoscopic patient treatment. The software used in endoscopic systems does not always allow us to take into account the specific features of image processing for analyzing cancer tumors. The article provides an overview of structural detail enhancement methods in videoendoscopic imaging and implementation of these methods developed using ImageJ plugin API.
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THE INCIDENCE OF DEHISCENCE OF THE TYMPANIC SEGMENT OF THE FACIAL NERVE CANAL ESTIMATED WITH COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

Deniz Bulja, Dragan Stojanov, Jelena Ignjatovic, Marija Dakovic Bjelakovic, Jelena Popovic, Nebojsa Ignjatovic

Pages: 143-146

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.34

In this study, we aimed to determine the presence and incidence of dehiscence of the tympanic segment of the facial nerve canal using the High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) and to evaluate this variation in relation to gender and age.

The retrospective-prospective study was performed at the Clinic for Radiology, University Clinical Center of Sarajevo. After the criteria for participation and non-participation in the study were applied, the study included 295 patients (160 women and 135 men) of ages ranging from 5 to 75, with performed computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone as a part of a standard procedure due to the suspicion of pathological activity in that area. We divided the subjects into seven age groups. Each group included a ten-year period. The presence of dehiscence of the facial nerve canal was recorded and the obtained results were statistically analyzed.

Of the total number of patients included in the study, the dehiscence of the tympanic segment of the facial nerve canal was found in 95 patients (32%). Of 590 temporal bones, there were 118 temporal bones with facial nerve canal dehiscence in the tympanic segment (20%). The dehiscence without stenosis of the oval window was noted in 110 temporal bones (18.6%). The dehiscence with stenosis of the oval window was noted in 8 temporal bones (1.4%). There was no statistically significant difference between age groups (p=0.245, Pearson’s χ2 test). Also, there was no statistically significant difference between males and females (p=0.385, Pearson’s χ2 test).

The incidence of dehiscence of the facial nerve canal is high and the tympanic segment is the most frequent site of dehiscence localization. Almost one third of the patients with the suspicion of pathological processes on the temporal bone can have dehiscence of the tympanic segment of the facial nerve canal. HRCT is the best visual imaging technique for the evaluation of the facial nerve course within its osseous canal.

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Biomedicine

EFFECT OF SILICON DIOXIDE ENRICHED WATER DURING CHRONIC INGESTION OF ALUMINUM ON FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES

Tanja Dzopalic, Dragana Zmijanjac, Adil Ehmedah, Boris Djindjic, Dejan Krstic, Marija Dakovic-Bjelakovic, Biljana Bozic-Nedeljkovic

Pages: 147-152

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.35

Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is an oligomineral found naturally in water, plants, and animals. One of the most important sources of this mineral is drinking water, where certain amount of dissolved amorphous silicon dioxide can be detected. Lack of SiO2 is associated with moderate disorders in the metabolism of bone tissue. Aluminum food intake enhances inflammation and the production of inflammatory cytokines. It is shown that silicon dioxide has an antagonistic effect with the aluminum in the body and may have a preventive role in numerous diseases. Therefore, the application of natural protectors that have the ability to reduce inflammatory responses and other harmful effects of aluminum are of special importance for contemporary nutrition. Aim: The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of silicon dioxide enriched water during chronic ingestion of aluminum on functional characteristics of peritoneal macrophages as one of the best-studied macrophage population. Materials and Methods: We used the model of chronic intoxication with aluminum for a period of 90 days by gavages with a solution of aluminum chloride in the form of aluminum salt dissolved in distilled water (1.6 mg/kg in 0.5 ml daily water intake). In total, 21 female Wistar Albino rats were divided into 3 groups, each consisting of 7 animals: chronically intoxicated with aluminum [non-treated (NT) and per os treated (T) with water enriched with silicon dioxide (20 mg/l)] and sham-intoxicated (S). PMF (LPS- or PMA-stimulated) were evaluated according to phagocytic activity and metabolic activity after 24h cultivation in vitro. The study also included evaluation of supernatant cytokine (TNF-α, soluble (s) ICAM-1) concentration in supernatants by ELISA method. Results: PMF from animals chronically intoxicated with aluminum (NT) showed lower metabolic viability/activity compared with PMF isolated from sham animals (S). Treatment of intoxicated animals with water enriched with SiO2 partially restored metabolic viability. T-PMF had higher metabolic viability compared to NT-PMF but still significantly lower than S-PMF. PMF of aluminum-intoxicated animals (NT-PMF) showed very low phagocytic activity, whereas SiO2 enriched water significantly up-regulated this activity. A daily intake of aluminum increased the release of TNF-α, while the SiO2 treatment reduced these levels. Up-regulated ICAM-1 shredding by T-PMF were followed by the production of TNF-α. Conclusion: Our study showed that treatment with water enriched with SiO2 in concentration of 20 mg/L partially normalized characteristic of PMF of animals intoxicated with aluminum. We can suggest that SiO2 could be a natural antidote of the aluminum and we may presume its possible beneficial role in decreasing the aluminum toxicity commonly present in water and food.
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THE ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF THE KIDNEY TISSUE IN PATIENTS WITH RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

Ivan Pavlović, Ana Todorović, Vesna Stojiljković, Ljubica Gavrilović, Nataša Popović, Snežana B. Pajović, Snežana Pejić

Pages: 153-155

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.36

Renal cell carcinoma is the most common and the most lethal type of kidney cancer with the highest incidence in developed countries. At the moment of diagnosis, many patients already have developed metastases. Tobacco smoking, obesity, hypertension and occupational exposure are established risk factors. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are antioxidant enzymes (AOE) that have a key role in protecting from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in pathological processes. We examined the antioxidant capacity of tumour tissue in patients with clear cell type of renal cell carcinoma. The results showed a significant decrease of AOE activities in the tumour tissue compared to the normal kidney tissue, indicating that the tumour tissue is under permanent oxidative stress. Renal cell carcinoma is highly resistant to radiation therapy, which is also associated with free radical production. Since the tumour tissue has impaired AO capacity, the findings of this study may contribute to the improvement of the potential therapeutic treatments.
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THE ANALYSIS OF CYSTIC FIBROSIS IN THE FEDERATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Amina Selimović, Ermina Mujičić, Selma Milišić, Senka Mesihović-Dinarević, Amra Džinović, Ganimeta Bakalović, Mahir Moro, Meliha Đozić, Lada Lukić-Bilela

Pages: 156-159

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.37

Aim: The aim of this study is to present the first total number of tested children in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the number of children with a positive sweat test. During the study, we determined the number of ill children, the median age of children with cystic fibrosis, the date of initial diagnosis, and an average amount of chloride in the sweat. Materials and methods: The study was a retrospective one, conducted at the Department of Pulmonology, Pediatric Clinic of the University Clinical Center of Sarajevo. Results: In the period from March 2003 to December 2014, we tested 625 children. 351 children were from the Sarajevo Canton and 272 children from other cantons. Female children were more affected then male children, in the ratio of 1: 1,105. The average age of female children was 4.19±4.26 years, and the average age of male children was 2.15±3.11 years. The median concentration of chloride in the sweat measured by the sweat test was 103.05±21.29 mmol/L for male children, and 96.05±28.85 mmol/L for female children. Conclusion: Most of children in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina have ∆F508 gene mutation. In the post-war period, we started using the sweat test. Male children with CF tend to live longer than female children.
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Biochemistry

ESTIMATION OF UNCERTAINTY OF TRYPSIN INHIBITOR ACTIVITY MEASUREMENT IN LEGUME CROPS

Vesna Župunski, Vesna Spasić Jokić, Mirjana Vasić, Aleksandra Savić, Zoran Mitrović, Ivan Župunski

Pages: 160-164

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.38

Irradiation of legume seeds has emerged as an attractive alternative compared to conventional chemical treatments in seed production. Irradiation is also used for the decontamination of food and feed in order to increase the shelf-life of fresh and dry food materials. The effects of irradiation on nutritive and anti-nutritive factors such as trypsin inhibitors are usually reported together with the measurements obtained by using the quantitative analytical methods. The objective of this study was to measure trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) of common bean cultivar Oplenac using the microtiter plate method and to identify factors that contribute to the uncertainty of TIA measurement according to the current Guide to the Expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). Dominant sources of uncertainty of TIA measurement were: absorbance measurements of sample and positive control reaction mixtures and preparation of the final sample solution using a graduated cylinder (V4). Absorbance measurement of sample reaction mixtures took 37.8 % of the overall measurement uncertainty. Preparation of the final sample solution using a graduated cylinder (V4) and absorbance measurement of positive control reaction mixture contributed to the overall uncertainty with 35.1 % and 15.8 %, respectively. Acquired insight into factors that contribute to the uncertainty of TIA measurement gives directions for the improvement of TIA testing methods and TIA results management.
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Biophysics

OPTICAL CORE-SHELL MODEL FOR NANO-DELIVERY APPLICATIONS

Ana J. Šetrajčić – Tomić , Dušan Lj. Džambas , Ljubiša D. Džambas , Jovan P. Šetrajčić

Pages: 165-170

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.39

In this paper, we will analyze the application of nanomaterials in biomedicine, that is to say, we will present the recent accomplishments in basic and clinical nanomedicine. Achieving the full potential of nanomedicine may be years or even decades away; however, potential advances in drug delivery, diagnosis, and the development of nanotechnology-related drugs are starting to change the landscape of medicine. Site-specific targeted drug delivery (made possible by the availability of unique delivery platforms, such as dendrimers, nanoparticles and nanoliposomes) and personalized medicine (result of the advance in pharmacogenetics) are just a few concepts on the horizon of research. In this paper, we have especially analyzed the changes in basic physical properties of spherical-shaped nanoparticles that can be made in several (nano)layers and have, at the same time, multiple applications in medicine. The subject of the research in this paper includes the modeling of nanomaterials in the field of pharmaceutical technology for biomedical application. This includes a very precise encapsulated drug delivery on the exactly defined place in the human tissue or organ and the disintegration of the capsule – drug carrier, so that the medicament can start producing its effect. The goal of multidisciplinary researches with biocompatible molecular nanomaterials is to find the parameters and the possibilities to construct boundary surfaces that will, in interaction with the biological environment, create such properties of nanolayers that can be conveniently used for layers of drug carrier capsules, biochips and biomarkers. These layers should demonstrate a controlled disintegration of structure, better dielectric properties, discrete luminescence and appropriate bioporosity, as all of these are the requirements of contemporary nanomedicine.
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Biomaterials

GELATION OF DNA AND BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN (DNA-BSA GEL) BY GAMMA IRRADIATION AS BIO-ABSORBENT FOR ACRIDINE ORANGE

H. Saito, T. M. Quynh, K. Furusawa, N. Nagasawa, T. Dobashi

Pages: 171-175

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.40

Together with their advantages, the availability of synthetic organic chemicals also caused many adverse effects to the environment due to the fact that they do not seem to be completely bio-degraded in nature. The residues of these synthetic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), acridine orange (AO) and other aromatics, as well as their degraded intermediates, may become carcinogens or mutagens, which severely affect human health. In the cell, these organic compounds can intercalate into the major grooves and interstices between the base pair of DNA double helix, resulting in several diseases and cancers. In other words, DNA can be utilized as the most efficient bio-adsorbent of such toxic agents. For this purpose, DNA must be in water-insoluble state. Recently, radiation has been proven to be one of the effective methods of introducing the crosslinking network in the polymer matrix. Though DNA is easily broken by radiation, it can crosslink in the presence of suitable crosslinkers, or be immobilized onto the crosslinking gels. In this study, we have successfully prepared DNA/BSA complex gels from aqueous mixtures of DNA with BSA by gamma irradiation. Their gelation behaviors were characterized for utilization as adsorbents for AO. The results indicated that the adsorption was a time-dependent process and the adsorption capacity of AO increased with DNA amount in the DNA/BSA gels.
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    DOI: 10.1042/bj3380629

POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF ORANGE PEELS AS BIO SORBENTS IN THE REMOVAL OF ORGANIC MOLECULES FROM WASTEWATER

Kaltrina Jusufi, Avni Berisha, Jeton Halili, Fatbardha Ferataj, Jehona Hasanaj, Bardha Korça, Veprim Thaçi

Pages: 176-178

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.41

The presence of contaminants in water is a very serious environmental issue. In order to overcome this problem, the present paper is dedicated to the development and evaluation of the efficiency of materials derived from orange peels toward the removal of dissolved organic molecules from aqueous solutions. UV-VIS spectroscopy was used for the evaluation of the methylene blue (MB) before and after the sorption process. The analysis of the performance of these materials is done by comparing their sorption efficiency with the derived materials from orange peels, directly or with acid-treated ones. Furthermore, the results were compared with activated carbon, which is a well-known material with high sorption performance. The study also involved the evaluation of different conditions (concentration, stirring, adsorption time, etc.) in the sorption efficiency of this molecule. The results show that the material derived from orange peel has very good adsorption properties, making it a serious candidate toward practical applications in wastewater treatment.
  1. M.A. Ahmad, N.A.A. Puad and O.S. Bello, “Kinetic Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies of Synthetic Dye Removal Using Pomegranate Peel Activated Carbon Prepared by Microwave-Induced KOH Activation,” Water Res. Ind., vol. 6, pp. 18–35, Aug. 2014
    DOI: 10.1016/j.wri.2014.06.002
  2. E. Forgacs, T. Cserháti and G. Oros, “Removal of Synthetic Dyes from Wastewaters: a review,” Envir. Int., vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 953–971, Sep. 2004
    DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2004.02.001
  3. B. Noroozi, M. Aramin and S.H. Bahrami, “Investigation on the Capability of Silkworm Pupa as a Natural Adsorbent for Removal Dyes From Textile Effluent,” Iran. J. Chem. Eng., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 39–44, 2004
  4. A.E. Yilmaz, R. Boncukcuoglu, M. Kocakerim and I.H. Karakas, “Waste Utilization: The Removal of Textile Dye (Bomaplex Red CR-L) from Aqueous on Sludge Waste from Electrocoagulation as Adsorbent,” Desalination, vol. 277, no. 1-3, pp. 156–163, Aug. 2011
    DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2011.04.018
  5. R. Bansal and M. Goyal, Activated Carbon Adsorption, Boca Raton (FL), USA: CRC Press, 2005
  6. C. Aharoni and M. Ungarish, “Kinetics of Activated Chemisorption. Part 2.—Theoretical Models,” J. Chem. Soc., Farad. Transact. 1: Phys. Chem. Cond. Phas., vol. 73, no. 0, pp. 456-464, 1977
    DOI: 10.1039/F19777300456
  7. A. Nigam and O.P. Rama, “Corncob - a Promising Adsorbent for the Removal of Chromium (VI) from Wastewater,” Ind J. Env. Prot., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 550-553, May 2002
  8. K.S. Arvind and N.T. Prem, “Removal of a Basic Dye from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption Using Parthenium Hysterophorus: an Agricultural Waste,” Ind. J. Chem. Techn., vol.10, pp. 211-216, Mar. 2003
  9. C.H. Weng, Y.C. Sharma and S.H. Chu, “Adsorption of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Solutions by Spent Activated Clay,” J. Hazard. Mat., vol. 155, no. 1-2, pp. 65-75, June 2008
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.11.029
  10. S. Izawa, “Methylene Blue Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Rhodopseudomonas Palustris,” Plant Cell Physiol., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 43-51, 1962
  11. M. Rafatullah, O. Sulaiman, R. Hashim and A. Ahmad, “Adsorption of Methylene Blue on Low-Cost Adsorbents: a review,” J. Hazard. Mat., vol. 177, no. 1-3, pp. 70-80, May 2010
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.12.047

Biotechnology

THE INFLUENCE OF FOLIAR FERTILIZING ON SOME CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF THE BROCCOLI (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis)

Petar Petrov, Vesna Markoska, Bojan Mitrovski

Pages: 179-182

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.42

The basic goal of this research is to determine the influence of foliar fertilization on the content of dry and mineral matter, vitamin C and total organic acids in broccoli. The experiment was set according to the random block-system, on fluvisol soil with a high concentration of available forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It was performed during the vegetation period of 2014, on the territory of the village of Negorci, near Gevegelija (Republic of Macedonia) with five variants and three repetitions in fifteen rows. Each variant involved 180 plants in total. The experiment involved the following variants: 1. Control (Non-fertilized); 2. Bioflor; 3. Ingrasamant foliar; 4. Humustim and 5. Rhizoactive. During the vegetation period, a total of four treatments were performed by foliar feeding with 0.4% solution of the above-given fertilizers. Following the broccoli harvest, the average samples were taken for chemical analysis and, from the results of the analysis carried out, it was concluded that the foliar fertilizing and the high concentration of the available forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium have positive effects on the chemical composition of the broccoli in all variants. The highest of the dry matter (14.31 %), mineral matter (1.40%), vitamin C (50.02 mg%) and total organic acid (0.48 %) content was achieved in the variant no. 5 Rhizoactive.
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    DOI: 10.3923/ajps.2004.549.555
  3. Ф. Кирил, „Поставување на полски опити од агрохемија,“ Тутун, т. 54, бр. 3-4, стр. 64-76, 2004. (F. Kiril, “Setting of an In-Field Experiments from Agrochemistry,” Tobacco, vol. 54., n0 3-4, pp. 64-76, 2004)
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  6. O. Jovanović-Vitorović i V. Rekalić, Ispitivanje u tehnološkoj proizvodnji sa praktikum za vežbe, Beograd, Srbija: Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva, 1999. (O. Jovanović-Vitorović and V. Rekalić, Examination in Technological Production with Laboratory Practicum, Belgrade, Serbia: Institute for Student Books and Teaching Resources, 1999)
  7. Petrov Petar, “Effects of Soil Fertility and Foliar Fertilization of Beetroot (Beta Vulgaris L. var. Cicla) in Gevgelija Region,” M.A. thesis, Facul. Agricult. Sci. Food, Univ. Ss. Cyril and Method., Skopje, Macedonia, 2014
  8. P. Petrov, M. Markoski and Tatjana Mitkova, “The Influence of Foliar Fertilizing with Organic Fertilizer on Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L. var. Capitata) Yield in the Gevgelija Region,” in Proc. Sci. Conf. Chall. Modern Agricult. Product., Skopje, Macedonia, 2014, pp. 21-25
  9. R. Wojciechowska, S. Rożek and A. Rydz, “Broccoli Yield and its Quality in Spring Growing Cycle as Dependent on Nitrogen Fertilization,” Folia Horticult., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 141-15, 2005

Biomedical Engineering

AN APPLICATION OF KINECT- BASED 3D SCANNING IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

Octavian Ciobanu, Gabriela Ciobanu

Pages: 183-186

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.43

This paper approaches the study on the use of a low-cost Kinect sensor for 3D scans and 3D reconstructions of human surfaces. The Kinect depth sensor used in this work is based on a webcam-style device and dedicated software. It uses a structured light technique in order to scan and reconstruct 3D surfaces. The target surface was the human head and the aim was to manufacture an orthotic mask for patients with traumatic burn injuries of the face.

Method: The study was made in order to observe the applicability of the Kinect-based 3D scans in the case of anatomic surfaces with concavities. Anatomic surfaces of a human head were scanned and 3D-reconstructed using the Kinect sensor and the Skanect software. Following some 3D image processing, a customized acrylic face mask was fabricated from the 3D-reconstructed mesh of the head. Orthotic masks may be applied in the case of facial burns in order to provide a small pressure over the burns. Results: The study shows the applicability of the Kinect-based 3D scans in the case of anatomic surfaces with rounded concavities and especially in the case of patients with burn injuries of the face. This study is among the first approaches to the application of the scanning of burn injuries with a Kinect device.

  1. P. Richard, A.C. Masquelet, M.P. Vazquez and C. Accart, “Techniques de prevention par masque facial des cicatrices-hypertrophiques de la face, secondaires aux brulures profondes,” Rev Stom Chir Maxillo-Faciale, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 398-401, 1986 (P. Richard, A.C. Masquelet, M.P. Vazquez and C. Accart, “Techniques for the Prevention of Facemask Hypertrophic Scars - The Opposite Side of the Deep Burns,” Rev Stom Chir Maxillo-Faciale, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 398-401, 1986)
  2. M.J. Pilley, C. Hitchens, G. Rose, S. Alexander, and D.I. Wimpenny, “The Use of Non-Contact Structured Light Scanning in Burns Pressure Splint Construction,” Burns, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 1168-1173, Nov. 2011
    DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2011.07.005
  3. E. Hierholzer and B. Drerup, “High-Resolution Rasterstereography,” in: Three-Dimensional Analysis of Spinal Deformities, M. D’Amico, A. Merolli, G.C. Santambrogio, Eds., Amsterdam, Nederlands: IOS Press, ch. 6, pp. 435 – 439, 1995
    DOI: 10.3233/978-1-60750-859-5-435
  4. T. Jiao, F. Zhang, X. Huang and C. Wang, “Design and Fabrication of Auricular Prostheses by CAD/CAM System,” Int. J. Prosthod., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 460-463, July-Aug. 2004
  5. G. Sansoni, M. Trebeschi, G. Cavagnini and G. Gastaldi, “3D Imaging Acquisition, Modeling and Prototyping for Facial Defects Reconstruction,” in Proc. SPIE: Thr.-Dim. Imag. Metrol., vol. 7239, pp. 1-8, Jan. 19, 2009
    DOI: 10.1117/12.806192
  6. B. Shin, R. Venkatramani, P. Borker, A. Olch, J. Grimm and K. Wong, “Spatial Accuracy of a Low Cost High Resolution 3D Surface Imaging Device for Medical Applications,” Int. J. Med. Phys., Clin. Engin. Rad. Oncol., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 45-51, May 2013
    DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2013.22007
  7. Y. Li, “Hand Gesture Recognition Using Kinect,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Comp. Sci. Autom. Engin., June 2012, pp. 196-199
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  9. I. Oikonomidis, N. Kyriazis, and A. Argyros, “Efficient Model-Based 3D Tracking of Hand Articulations Using Kinect,” in Proc. BMVC, Dundee, Scotland, UK, Sep. 2011, pp. 101.1-101.11
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  10. O. Ciobanu and G. Ciobanu, “A Study on Two Cost Effective Scanning and Modeling Techniques Used for the Fabrication of an Orthotic Mask,” Buletinul I.P.I. Secţ. Constr. Maş., Fasc., vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 1-8, Oct. 2013
  11. O. Ciobanu, W. Xu, G. Ciobanu, “An Evaluation of Singlecamera Stereophotogrammetric Scanning Technique Applied in 3D Modeling”, Fiabil. Durabil., Suppl. 1,no. 1, pp. 234-240, Jan. 2013

Professional Papers

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN NOISE EQUIVALENT COUNT RATE AND IMAGE NOISE IN PET MEDICAL IMAGING

Vojislav Antic, Julie Haglund

Pages: 187-190

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.44

Assessing PET image quality is a challenge due to its clinical subjectivity and difficulties in standardisation. Methods to evaluate PET image quality include image noise and noise equivalent count rate (NECR), which are automatic and objective measurements determined from the reconstructed medical PET image or PET raw emission data from phantoms. Although manufacturers emphasize scanner performance by stating peak NECR, the peak NECR is often outside clinically relevant activity concentrations. This means that the administered activity is limited by radiation safety factors, as opposed to scanner performance. When considering image reconstruction instead, image noise in the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is related to the true image value, so it could be inferred that this could also be true for three-dimensional ordered subset expectation maximization (3D-OSEM) algorithm. One consequence is that for the 3D-OSEM reconstruction, the suggested limit of injected activity, traditionally based on NECR, should be based on the true count rate. This means that images with higher SNR will be produced by increasing the injected activity to match the peak true count rate for 3D-OSEM [1].
  1. T. Chang, G. Chang, J.W. Clark Jr., R.H. Diab, E. Rohren and O.R. Mawlawi, “Reliability of Predicting Image Signal-to-Noise Ratio Using Noise Equivalent Count Rate in PET Imaging,” Med. Phys., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 5891-5900, 2012
    DOI: 10.1118/1.4750053
  2. T. Chang, G. Chang, S. Kohlmyer, J.W. Clark Jr., E. Rohren and O.R. Mawlawi, “Effects of Injected Dose, BMI and Scanner Type on NECR and Image Noise in PET Imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 56, no. 16, pp. 5275-5285, Jul. 2011
    DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/56/16/013
  3. R.J. Ott, M.A. Flower, A.D. Hall, P.D. Marsden and J.W. Babich, “Radioisotope Imaging,” in, Webb’s Physics of Medical Imaging, 2nd ed., M.A. Flower, Ed., Boca Raton (FL), USA: CRC Press, 2012, ch. 5, p. 335
  4. E. Clementel, S. Vandenberghe, J.S. Karp and S. Surti, "Comparison of image Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Noise Equivalent Counts in Time-of-Flight PET," IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Med. Imag. Conf., Knoxville (TN), USA, Oct.-Nov. 2010, pp. 3622 - 3625, 2010
    DOI: 10.1109/NSSMIC.2010.5874487
  5. M. Dahlbom, C. Schiepers and J. Czernin, “Comparison of Noise Equivalent Count Rates and Image Noise,” IEEE Transact. Nucl. Sci., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1386-1390, Oct. 2005
    DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2005.858176
  6. N.A. Karakatsanis, E. Fokou and C. Tsoumpas, “Dosage Optimization in Positron Emission Tomography: State-of-the-Art Methods and Future Prospects,” Am. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imag., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 527-547, 2015
  7. T. Carlier, L. Ferrer, H. Necib, C. Bodet-Milin, C. Rousseau and F. Kraeber-Bodéré, “Clinical NECR in 18F-FDG PET Scans: Optimization of Injected Activity and Variable Acquisition Time. Relationship with SNR,” Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 59, no. 21, pp. 6417–6430, Oct. 2014
    DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/59/21/6417
  8. C.C. Watson, et al., “Optimizing Injected Dose in Clinical PET by Accurately Modeling the Counting-Rate Response Functions Specific to Individual Patient Scans,” J. Nucl. Med., vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 1825-1834, Nov. 2005
  9. R. Accorsi, J.S. Karp and S. Surti, “Improved Dose Regimen in Pediatric PET,” J. Nucl. Med., vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 293-300, Feb. 2010
    DOI: 10.2967/jnumed.109.066332
  10. E.H de Groot, N. Post, R. Boellaard, N.R.L. Wagenaar, A.T.M. Willemsen and J.A. van Dalen, “Optimized Dose Regimen for Whole-Body FDG-PET Imaging,” EJNMMI Res., vol. 3, no. 63, Aug. 2013
    DOI: 10.1186/2191-219X-3-63

DEVELOPING A CULTURE OF RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENT

Julie Haglund

Pages: 191-194

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.45

The responsibility of the radiation protection coordinator is to help ensure that radiation safety at the hospital is safeguarded in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. In practice, this means equipment registration and maintenance, personnel dosimetry, ensuring the competence of all employees who work with ionizing radiation, and documentation of all radiation protection measures and activities. This work describes the violations met and improvements made during one year of work as radiation protection coordinator at a regional hospital with locations in five different cities in Østfold County in Norway.
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  2. E.G. Widmark et al., Veileder om medisinsk bruk av røntgen- og MR-apparatur: Veileder til forskrift om strålevern og bruk av stråling, Veileder nr. 5, Statens strålevern, 2005. Revidert Sep. 2014. (E.G. Widmark et al., Guidance for use of medical X-ray and MR equipment: Guidance to Regulations for radiation protection and use of radiation, Guidance no. 5, Norw. Rad. Prot. Auth., 2005. Revised Sep. 2014
  3. Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet (12.05.2000). LOV-2000-05-12-36 Lov om strålevern og bruk av stråling [strålevernloven]. [Royal Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services. (May 12, 2000). LOV-2000-05-12-36 Law on Radiation Protection and Use of Radiation.]
  4. M.M. Rehani et al., “ICRP Publication 117: Radiological Protection in Fluoroscopically Guided Procedures Performed Outside the Imaging Department,” Annals of the ICRP, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1-102, Dec. 2010.

ESTIMATED RADIATION RISKS, CLINICAL FACTORS AND PATIENT DOSE IN MAMMOGRAPHY

Umit Kara, Huseyin Ozan Tekin

Pages: 195-196

DOI: 10.21175/RadProc.2016.46

Mammography is a non-invasive technique that helps physicians diagnose. A mammogram is basically an X-ray picture of the breast. A mammography unit is a specific type of X-ray for breast imaging. Mammography uses low radiation dose X-rays to detect breast cancer early, before women experience symptoms. Like all X-ray units, mammograms use doses of low ionizing radiation to generate images. However, sometimes low doses of ionizing radiation can increase the risk of longer term effects, such as cancer. In this paper, our purpose was to compare patient radiation doses and patient lifetime attributable risks. We measured patient doses and background radiation in two different mammography units (digital, analogue).
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  2. O.W. Linton and F.A. Mettler, “National Conference on Dose Reduction in CT, with an Emphasis on Pediatric Patients,” AJR, vol. 181, no. 2, pp. 321-329, Aug. 2003
    DOI: 10.2214/ajr.181.2.1810321
  3. D.J. Brenner and E.J. Hall, Computed Tomography: An Increasing Source of Radiation Exposure, N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 357, no. 22, pp. 2277-2284, Nov. 2007
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